English Grammar for School and College students

I. TENSES

         
  • Present Tense Sentences
·     Simple
·     Continuous
·     Perfect
·     Perfect Continuous
1. Simple Present Tense Sentences
[3rd Person + Present tense + Singular → Verb + s]
1.       I go to college.
2.       I read a lesson.
3.       I eat an apple.
4.       Raja sings a song.
5.       Sun rises in the east.
6.       Sun sets in the west.
7.       They jump.
8.       He opens the door.
9.       You run away.
10.    He runs away.
11.    He walks to the garden.


2. Present Continuous Tense Sentences
is → singular
am → I
are → plural
  1. I am speaking.
  2. Raju is eating.
  3. You are sleeping.
  4. They are watching T.V.
  5. We are playing food ball.


3. Present Perfect Tense Sentences.
  1. I have cut my nose.
  2. I have given money.
  3. I have a house
  4. We have brought.
  5. He has sent it.
  6. She has sunk.
  7. It has broken.
  8. They have taken.


4. Present Perfect continuous Tense Sentences.
I have been giving money.
  1. I have been listening music.
  2. She has been reading.
  3. He has been running.
  4. They have been watching movie.


  • Past Tense Sentences
·     Simple
·     Continuous
·     Perfect
·     Perfect Continuous

1. Simple Past Tense Sentences
  1. I went to college.
  2. I read a lesson.
  3. I ate an apple.
  4. Raja sang a song.
  5. I studied the lesson.
  6. He opened the door.
  7. You run away.
  8. Dog barked.
  9. I saw a book.
  10. He came from school.
  11. He said to Raja.
  12. I received a message.
  13. Raja danced beautifully.
  14. They worked hard.
  15. You caught.


2. Past Continuous Tense Sentences.
  1. I was speaking
  2. Raju was sending.
  3. You were teaching.
  4. They were coming.
  5. We were dancing.
  6. He was thinking.


3. Past Perfect Tense Sentences.
1.       The sun had set.
2.       The show had begun.
3.       I had cut my hair.


4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense sentences.
  1. I had been eating.
  2. I had been listening.
  3. She had been running.
  4. They had been reading.
  5. You had been jumping.

  • Future Tense Sentences
·     Simple
·     Continuous
·     Perfect
·     Perfect Continuous
1. Simple Future Tense Sentences.

  1. I shall go to college.
  2. I shall study tomorrow.
  3. We shall come.
  4. You will run.
  5. He will open.
  6. She will sing.
  7. We shall eat.
  8. It will come.
  9. Raju will sing.
  10. Raja sill come.


2. Future Continuous Tense Sentences.

  1. He will be eating.
  2. I shall be going.
  3. They will be dancing.
  4. They will be going.
  5. Raja will be acting.
  6. We shall be singing.
  7. Rose will be winning the race.


3. Future Perfect Tense Sentences.

  1. I shall have eaten tomorrow.
  2. I shall have written my exercise.
  3. They will have broken the car.
  4. We will have known.
  5. We shall have gone tomorrow.


4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense Sentences.

  1. I shall have been eating.
  2. Raju will have been reading.
  3. Raja will have been studying.
  4. They will have been writing.
  5. Raja will have been doing.



II. Use able to / unable to
Can = Present Tense
Could = Past Tense
1. I can play. (Use able to)
Ans. I am able to play.

2. I could play (Use able to)
Ans. I was able to play.

3. He could tell me. (Use able to)
Ans. He was able to tell me.

4. They could tell me. (Use able to)
Ans. They were able to tell me.

5. She can work. (Use able to)
Ans. She is able to work.

6. I can write a letter.
Ans. I am able to write a letter.

7. She could eat a mango.
Ans. She was able to eat a mango.

8. She could not eat sandwich.
Ans. She was unable to eat sandwich.

9. I cannot dance.
Ans. I am unable to dance.

10. I cannot write an essay.
Ans. I am unable to write an essay.

III. Remove too
too → very, excessively, extremely
too ……to…… → so …… that ……cannot/ could not
Present tense, is, am, are → cannot.
Past tense, was, were → could not.

1. It is too hot outside.
Ans. It is very hot outside.

2. These books are too expensive.
Ans. These books are very expensive.

3. Raja is too fond of sweets.
Ans. Raja is extremely fond of sweets.

4. It is too sour.
Ans. IT is very sour.

5. The king was too infallible (perfect) to make a mistake.
Ans. The king was so infallible that he could not make a mistake.  

6. I am too tired to think of anything.
Ans. I am so tired that I cannot think of anything.

7. He spoke too fast to be understood.
Ans. He spoke so fast that one could not understand.

8. He is too proud to beg.
Ans. He is so proud that he cannot beg.

9. Hitler was too cruel to spare the Jews.
Ans. Hitler was so cruel that he could not spare the Jews.

10. The Chief Minister Mr. Raja was too busy to give us an appointment.
Ans. The Chief Minister Mr. Raja was so busy that he could not give us an appointment.

11. Parents nowadays are too busy to pay attention to their children education.
Ans. Parents nowadays are so busy that they cannot pay attention to their children education.

12. It became too dark to read easily.
Ans. It became so dark that one could not read easily.

13. I too won a ticket to go to cinema.
Ans. I also won a ticket to go to cinema.

14. He too got it right.
Ans. He also got it right.

IV. Make sentences using the given words as noun as well as verbs.

Noun = Name of place, animal, things.
Verbs = Action.

  1. Hand
  2. Can
  3. Lock
  4. Cook
  5. Work
  6. Visit
  7. Name
  8. Right
  9. Hold
  10. Return
  11. Offer
  12. Look
  13. Shop
  14. Produce
  15. Form
  16. Try
  17. lead


Ø  Hand me the towel. (verb)
Ø  Aishwarya’s hand is beautiful. (noun)
Ø  You can do this. (verb)
Ø  The can is full of water. (Noun)
Ø  Lock the door, before you leave. (verb)
Ø  Key is with the lock. (noun)
Ø  My mother cooks food. (verb)
Ø  He is a popular cook. (noun)
Ø  He works in call centre. (verb)
Ø  I have lot of work to do. (noun)
Ø  He visits to the zoo. (verb)
Ø  He earned good name. (Noun)
Ø  I name this cat. (verb)
Ø  Right the correct one. (verb)
Ø  Take right. (noun)
Ø  Hold the pen. (verb)
Ø  I didn’t have any hold. (noun)
Ø  I return the book. (verb)
Ø  I have no return. (noun)
Ø  The companies offer discount. (verb)
Ø  It is a good offer. (noun)
Ø  I am looking you. (verb)
Ø  Your look is beautiful. (noun)
Ø  Raja shops vegetables. (verb)
Ø  He opened the shop. (noun)
Ø  Raghavan produced a film. (verb)
Ø  The farmers store their produce. (noun)
Ø  Ambani formed a company. (verb)
Ø  I am unable to fill the form. (noun)
Ø  I tried a lot. (verb)
Ø  He gave it a last try. (noun)
Ø  He leads me in the race. (verb)
Ø  Lead is a metal. (noun)

1.       I decided to take a calligraphy class. (Use noun form of the underlined word and rewrite)
Ans. I took a decision to take a calligraphy class.
2.       My doctor advised me to go home. (Use noun form of the underlined word and rewrite)
Ans. My  doctor’s advice for me was to go home.
3.       At that moment my spirit revolted. (Use noun form of the underlined word and rewrite)
Ans. At that moment there was a revolution in my spirit.

V. Opposites with Prefixes and suffixes.

  1. able x unable (prefix)
  2. complete x incomplete
  3. proper x improper
  4. guide x misguide
  5. regular x irregular
  6. ordinary x extraordinary
  7. social x anti – social
  8. legal x illegal
  9. encourage x discourage
  10. interior x exterior
  11. agree x disagree
  12. careful x careless (suffix)
  13. fearful x fearless
  14. appear x disappear
  15. direct x indirect
  16. perfect x imperfect
  17. septic x antiseptic
  18. ability x inability
  19. useful x useless
  20. important x unimportant
  21. call x miscall
  22. national x international
  23. correct x incorrect
  24. pure x impure
  25. obey x disobey
  26. understand x misunderstand
  27. literate x illiterate
  28. war x antiwar
  29. clear x unclear
  30. willing  x unwilling
  31. pleasant x unpleasant
  32. romantic x unromantic
  33. developed x undeveloped
  34. equal x unequal
  35. definite x indefinite
  36. aware x unaware
  37. respect x disrespect
  38. patient  x impatient
  39. responsible x irresponsible
  40. lock x unlock
  41. cyclone x anti – cyclone
  42. like x dislike
  43. continue x discontinue
  44. restless x restful
  45. justice x injustice
  46. experienced x inexperienced
  47. valuable x valueless
  48. successful x unsuccessful
  49. necessary x unnecessary
  50. maximum x minimum
  51. powerful x powerless
  52. sensitive x insensitive
  53. vegetarian x non vegetarian
  54. reserved x unreserved
  55. kind x unkind
  56. friendly x unfriendly
  57. advantage x disadvantage
  58. connect x disconnect
  59. give x receive
  60. normal x abnormal

VI. Affirmative and negative sentences
1. I like to go to the seashore. (Make it negative.)
Ans. I don’t dislike going to the seashore.

2. He likes to go to the seashore.
Ans. He don’t dislike going to the seashore.

3. They like to go to the seashore.
Ans. They don’t dislike going to the seashore.

4. It is useless.
Ans. It is not useful.

5. There is little hurry.
Ans. There is no hurry.


6. He had only his daughter with him.
Ans. He had no one except his daughter with him.

7. I do not remember. (Make it affirmative)
Ans. I fail to remember.

8. I did not remember.
Ans. I failed to remember.

9. She does not remember.
Ans. She fails to remember.

10. It was never heard of in the history of Mumbai.
Ans. This was the first time in the history of Mumbai that it had been heard of.

11. David grew up considering blindness no tragedy.
Ans. David grew up without ever considering blindness a tragedy.

12. They had always fallen into the realm of possibility.
Ans. They had never fallen into the realm of impossibility.

13. David’s ambition to become a doctor was not in that realm.
Ans. David’s ambition to become a doctor was beyond that realm.

14. He was no different from anyone else.
Ans. He was like everyone else

15. You’ll never know unless you try.”
Ans. You’ll only know if you try.

16. It’s likely no personal computer would have them.
Ans. It’s likely all personal computer would be without them.

17. You are fortunate and yet you cannot understand your fortune. (remove negative)
Ans. You are fortunate and yet you are unable to understand your fortune.

18. Abyss cannot head the song of the stars. (Remove negative and rewrite)
Ans. Abyss is unable to hear the song of the stars.

19. His replies did not gladden our heart at the time.
Ans. His replies failed to gladden our hearts at the time.

20. It didn’t halve our time exactly.
Ans. It failed to halve our time.

VII. Question Tag.
1. I am in mood.
Ans. I am in mood, aren’t I?

2. Let’s go for picnic.
Ans. Let’s go for picnic, shall we?

3. Let us go for cinema.
Ans. Let us go for cinema, shall we?

4. They always come in time.
Ans. They always come in time, don’t they?

5. We sit here every day.
Ans. We sit here every day, don’t we?

6. Vijay comes here right at 5.
Ans. Vijay comes here right at 5, doesn’t he?

7. They reached here yesterday.
Ans. They reached here yesterday, didn’t they?

8. That girl got the prize.
Ans. That girl got the prize, didn’t she?

9. I am not tired.
Ans. I am not tired, am I?

10. He does not attend the school.
Ans. He does not attend the school, does he?

11. Ranji never mixes with her classmates.
Ans. Ranji never mixes with her classmates, does she?

12. You should not blame him.
Ans. You should not blame him, should you?

13. I shall go to school.
Ans. I shall go to school, shan’t I?

14. We are not telling the truth.
Ans. We are not telling the truth, are we?

15. He will go to school.
Ans. He will go to school, won’t he?

16. Bring me food.
Ans. Bring me food, will you?

17. Show me your pen.
Ans. Show me your pen, will you?

18. Stay there.
Ans. Stay there, will you?

19. Open the door.
Ans. Open the door, will you?

20. Both he and David grinned.
Ans. Both he and David grinned, didn’t they?

21. You’ll never know unless your try.
Ans. You’ll never know unless you try, will you?

22. Allow me to be a rose for one day.
Ans. Allow me to be a rose for one day, won’t you?

23. At that moment my spirit revolted.
Ans. At that moment my spirit revolted, didn’t it?

24. There has been no sign of improvement in the patient.
Ans. There has been no sign of improvement in the patient, has there?

VIII. Exclamatory and Assertive Sentences.
1. What a wonderful story it was! (make it assertive)
Ans. It was a wonderful story.

2. How naughty you are!
Ans. You are very naughty.

3. How sweet!
Ans. It is really very sweet.

4. He was very slow. (Make it exclamatory)
Ans. How slow he was!

5. It was a very lovely painting.
Ans. What a lovely painting it was!

6. How lucky I was!
Ans. I was very lucky.

7. What a lesson to be learned from Wilma!
Ans. It was indeed a great lesson to be learned from Wilma.

8. He was an extraordinary human being.
Ans. What an extraordinary human being he was!

9. I am quite tired.
Ans. How tired I am!

10. I am very proud of my nice mother.
Ans. How proud I am of my nice mother!

11. You are absolutely right.
Ans. How right you are!

12. How painful it is.
Ans. It is very painful.

IX. HOMOPHONES
Homophones are those words which sounds similar buy have meaning and spelling different.
  1. bare , bear
  2. compliment, complement
  3. dye, die
  4. flower, flour
  5. lesson, lessen
  6. pain , pane
  7. peek, peak
  8. loan, lone
  9. main, mane
  10. meet, meat
  11. rein, rain, reign
  12. role, roll
  13. root, route
  14. sail, sale
  15. sight, cite, site
  16. soar, sore
  17. sole, soul
  18. tyre, tire
  19. waist, waste
  20. wait, weight
  21. week weak
  22. There , their
  23. Fair, fare
  24. Knew, new
  25. Wright, right
  26. Sum, some
  27. Whether, weather
  28. Principle, principal
  29. Piece, peace
  30. Birth, berth
  31. Hole, whole
  32. Pray, prey
  33. Sea, see
  34. Be, bee
  35. Where, were
  36. Hear, ear
  37. Our, hour
  38. Are, or


X. Degree of comparison.
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
Sweet
Small
Tall
Bold
Clever
Kind
Young
Brave
Fine
Happy
Great
Easy
Wealthy
Hot
Thin
Sad
Fat
Beautiful
Eminent
Industrious
Ferocious
Difficult
Good
Well
Bad
Little
Much
Many
In
Up
Old
Old
Sweeter
Smaller
Taller
Bolder
Cleverer
Kinder
Younger
Braver
Finer
Happier
Greater
Easier
Wealthier
Hotter
Thinner
Sadder
Fatter
More beautiful
More eminent
More industrious
More ferocious
More difficult
Better
Better
Worse
Lesser
More
More
Inner
Upper
Elder
Older
Sweetest
Smallest
Tallest
Boldest
Cleverest
Kindest
Youngest
Bravest
Finest
Happiest
Greatest
Easiest
Wealthiest
Hottest
Thinnest
Saddest
Fattest
Most beautiful
Most eminent
Most industrious
Most ferocious
Most difficult
Best
Best
Worst
Least
Most
Most
Innermost
Uppermost
Eldest
oldest


Positive
Comparative
Superlative
No other
than any other
the happiest
Few other/ very few
than many / most other
one of the tallest

1. Raji is the richest woman in Mumbai.
Ans. Raji is richer than any other woman in Mumbai.
No other woman in Mumbai is as rich as Raji.

2. Reading is the best form of recreation.
Ans. Reading is better than any other form of recreation.
No other form of recreation is as good as reading.

3. Australia is the largest Island.
Ans. Australia is larger than many other Islands.
No other Island is as large as Australia.

4. Australia is one of the largest Islands.
Ans. Australia is larger than many other Islands.
Very few Islands are as large as Australia.

5. Books are the best source of knowledge.
Ans. Books are better than any other source of knowledge.
No other source of knowledge is as good as books.

6. Iron is stronger than many other metals.
Ans. Iron is one of the strongest metals.
Very few metals are as strong as Iron.

7. No one is as lazy as Raja.
Ans. Raja is lazier than any other.
Raja is the laziest of all.

8. The greatest lessons in life are learnt from children.
Ans. No other lessons in life is as great as the ones that are learnt from children.

9. I have never seen such a ferocious animal as this.
Ans. I have never seen an animal more ferocious than this one.

Note: - Whenever the comparison is made between two persons or things there does not exist with superlative degree.

1. Mango is sweeter than Apple.
Ans. Apple is not as sweet as Mango.

2. Mumbai is not leaner than Chennai.
Ans. Chennai is as clean as Mumbai.

3. March is not as hot as June.
Ans. June is hotter than March.

4. The rose smells as sweet as the lily.
Ans. The lily does not smell sweeter than the rose.

5. The rose smelled as sweet as the lily.
Ans. The lily did not smell sweeter than the rose.

6. The roses smell as sweet as the lilies.
The lilies do not smell sweeter than the rose.

7. I feel as scared as you do.
Ans. I don’t feel less scared than you.

XI. Change the voice.

1. I love my studies.
Ans. My studies are loved by me. 

2. Earth loves us.
Ans. We are loved by Earth.

3. Mom loves me.
Ans. I am loved by Mom.

4. The cat kills the rat.
Ans. The rat is killed by the cat.

5. The cat kill the rats.
Ans. The rats are killed by the cat.

6. The cats kill the rat.
Ans. The rat is killed by the cats.

7. I write a letter.
Ans. A letter is written by me.

8. I write those letters.
Ans. Those letters are written by me.

9. He broke the glass.
Ans. The glass was broken by him.

10. He breaks the glass.
Ans. The glass is broken by him.

11. The C.M. received the P.M.
Ans. The P.M. was received by the C.M.

12. The peon delivered the letters.
Ans. The letters were delivered by the peon.

13. I closed the door.
Ans. The door was closed by me.

14. Raji wrote a letter.
Ans. A letter was written by Raji.

15. He will finish the work.
Ans. The work will be finished by him.

16. He will finish the work.
Ans. The work will be finished by him.

17. People will forget it.
Ans. It will be forgotten by people.

18. I shall invite you.
Ans. You will be invited by me.

19. The police will catch me.
Ans. I shall be caught by the police.

20. They will send me.
Ans. I shall be sent by them.

21. They have eaten the fruits.
Ans. The fruits have been eaten by them.

22. They have opened the window.
Ans. The window has been opened by me.

23. He has driven those cars.
Ans. Those cars have been driven by him.

24. I had written a letter.
Ans. A letter had been written by me.

25. She had painted a picture.
Ans. A picture had been painted by her.

26. He had cut those trees.
Ans. Those trees had been cut by him.

27. The teacher had taught the lesson.
Ans. The lesson had been taught by the teacher.

28. The teacher had taught the lessons.
Ans. The lessons had been taught by the teacher.

29. The teacher will have taught the lesson.
Ans. The lesson will have been taught by the teacher.

30. Vijay will have finished the task.
Ans. The task will have been finished by Vijay.

31. My friend will have bought a gift.
Ans. A gift will have been bought a gift.

32. I shall have written a letter.
Ans. A letter will have been written by me.

33. I am watching you.
Ans. You are being watched by me.

34. The Raman is building the wall.
Ans. The wall is being built by the Raman.

35. The teacher is teaching a new lesson.
Ans. A new lesson is being taught by the teacher.

36. My mother is cutting an apple.
Ans. Apples are being cut by my mother.

37. My mother is cutting apples.
Ans. Apples are being cut by my mother.

38. The gardener was cutting grass.
Ans. Grass was being cut by the gardener.

39. The rain had divided Mumbai into two.
Ans. Mumbai had been divided into two by the rain.

40. He was elected vice – president of the student council.
Ans. They elected him the vice – president of the student council.

41.  He was seized with feeling of inadequacy.
Ans. Feeling of inadequacy seized him.

42. We feel renewed faith in the infinite possibilities of all people. (Begin the sentence with “Renewed faith………”).
Ans. Renewed faith in the infinite possibilities of all people is felt by us.

43. We were designing the first Macintosh computer. (Rewrite the sentence beginning with “The first ……”)
Ans. The firs Macintosh computer was being designed by us.

44. Cast aside your thoughts. (Change the voice)
Ans. Let your thoughts be cast aside.

45.  You are consoling me.
Ans. I am being consoled by you.

46. We were told to fold it neatly.
Ans. He told us to fold it neatly.

47. Father taught us a simple lesson
Ans. A simple lesson was taught to us by father.

XII. Figure of Speech

1.       Personification – human quality
E.g.
  • The Moon is laughing.
Personification: The Moon is given the human quality of Laughing.
  • The river is running.
Personification: The river is given the human quality of running.
  • The waves are dancing
Personification: The waves are given human quality of dancing.
  • Wind made the trees to dance.
Personification: The trees are given the human quality of dancing.
  • The pine trees frowned at the sun.
Personification: The pine trees are given the human action of ‘frowning’ (disappointing) .
  • The sky rejoices in the morning’s birth.
Dual Personification: Bothe the sky and the morning are given human abilities of ‘rejoicing’ and ‘being born’.respectively.
  • The forests are dying.
Personification: The forest is given the human ability of ‘dying’.
  • Wildlife is crying. (Try yourself)
  • Mother earth is sighing. (Try yourself)
  • And let us greet our Motherland and bow before her feet and say.
Personification: The Motherland is given human ability of ‘bowing’.



2.       Alliteration – repetition of same alphabet
  • It clogs and clutters up the mind.
Alliteration:  The sound of the letter ‘c’ is repeated for poetic effect.
  • Such wondrous fine fantastic tales.
Alliteration: The sound of the letter ‘f’ is repeated for poetic effect.
  • And pirates wearing purple pants.
Alliteration: The sound of the letter ‘p’ is repeated for poetic effect.
  • The rain came heavily and fell in floods.
Alliteration: The sound of the letter ‘f’ repeated for poetic effect.
  • The hare is running races in her mirth.
Alliteration: The letter ‘r’ is repeated for poetic effect.
  • It’s sharing sorrow and work and mirth. (Try yourself)
  • It’s struggling on with the will to win.
  • And greedy industries play their polluted pranks.
  • The soup’s too hot, the corn’s too cold.
  • The tip toe softly to the doorI wish I’d stayed a minute more.
Alliteration: The sounds of the letters ‘s’ and ‘m’ are repeated for poetic effect.
  • Mother! your millions meet and swear on this, our proud Republic Day. (Try yourself)
  • The grinning mask of death and doom worn  by cress enemies of truth. (Try yourself)
  • Famine and drought and dread and doom. (Try yourself)
  • Let India’s millions chant in chorus. (Try yourself)
  • Down with all ruthless tyranny, down with all exploitation which Renders the poor: the poorer - and renders the bloated rich, more rich!
Alliteration: The sounds of the letter ‘p’ and ‘r’ are repeated for poetic effect.


3.       Repetition – repetition of same word
  • They sit and stare and stare and sit.
Repetition: The words ‘sit’ and ‘stare’ are repeated pleasantly for poetic effect.
  • They ...used...to...read! They read and read, and read and read, and then proceed. (Try yourself)
  • So, please, oh please, we beg, we pray. (Try yourself)


4.       Tautology – same meaning
  • Pure unadulterated butter available here.
Tautology: The meaning of the word ‘unadulterated’ is already contained in the word ‘pure’.
5.       Antithesis – opposite words or ideas
  • Speech is silvern, but silence is golden.
Antithesis: Two opposite ideas of speech and silence are placed together for poetic effect.


6.       Hyperbole – over statement
  • And stare until their eyes pop out.
Hyperbole: The idea expressed is highly exaggerated.
  • It makes a child so dull and blind.
Hyperbole: The idea expressed is highly exaggerated.
  • His powers of thinking rust and freeze.
Hyperbole: The idea expressed is highly exaggerated.
  • For buying the hundreds of elctronic gadgets.
Hyperbole: The idea expressed is highly exaggerated.
  • Millions of fish are dying


7.       Interrogation – questions
  • How could anyone not know?
Interrogation: Idea is expressed in the form of a question.


8.       Exclamation – expression
  • Oh! how wonderful is the rain.
Exclamation: The idea is conveyed explicitly.
  • Oh the value of the elderly!
Exclamation: The idea is conveyed explicitly.


9.    Onomatopoeia – sound
  • The clock is running tik - tik - tik.
Onomatopoeia: Sense of sound is conveyed through the word ‘tik - tik - tik’
  • There was a roaring in the wind all night.
Onomatopoeia: Sense of sound is conveyed through the word ‘roaring’.
  • The Jay makes answer as the Magpie chatters.
Onomatopoeia: Sense of sound is conveyed through the word ‘chatters’
  • For something in it crunches.
Onomatopoeia: Sense of sound is conveyed through the word ‘crunches’.
  • Echoing and re - echoing a new hope and a new desire.
Onomatopoeia: Sense of sound is conveyed through the words ‘echoing’ and ‘re-echoing’
10. Climax - Ideas are arranged in the order of increasing importance.
  • The spectators smiled, giggled and finally burst into laughter.
Climax: Ideas are arranged in the order of increasing importance.
  • They’ll loll and slop and lounge about And stare until their eyes pop out.
Climax: Ideas are arranged in the order of increasing importance.
  • That nauseating, foul, unclean, Repulsive television screen!
Climax: Ideas are arranged in the order of increasing importance.
  • I’d tuck you in all safe at night. And hear your prayers, turn off the lights.


11. Metaphor- An implicit (indirect) comparison is made without using words such as ‘like’, ‘as’ and ‘so’.
  • Before this monster was invented?
Metaphor:  The television is indirectly compared to a monster.
  • Our world is an institution.
Metaphor: The world is indirectly compared to an institution.
  • They hold so many keys.
Metaphor: The experience of the elderly is indirectly compared to keys.
  • As a nation we are mission our greatest true resource.
Metaphor: The nation is indirectly compared to a resource


12. Simile - An explicit comparison is made between two things by using words such as ‘like’, ‘as’ and ‘so’
  • I wandered lonely as a cloud.
Simile: The loneliness of the poet is compared to that of the cloud using the word ‘as’.
  • His brain becomes as soft as cheese.
Smile: The softness of the brain is directly compared to that of cheese.
  • That attracts the industries to produce like maggots.
Simile: The industries are directly compared to maggots.


12. Apostrophe: Inanimate things are directly addressed.
  • O Mother! teach our hands to bear.
Apostrophe: The earth is directly addressed as if it were a living being.
  • Republic Day of India! Your dawning shall begin to work.
Apostrophe: Republic day is directly addressed as it were a living being.


13. Synecdoche - Here one idea is understood by means of another.
  • My hands were busy through the day.
Synecdoche: Part (hands) for the whole (the person).
  • My hands once busy now are still.
Synecdoche: Part (hands) for the whole (the person).


XIII. Wh type questions.

1.       We lived downstairs of the hospital.
Ans. Where did we live?

2.       He announced that he was going to be a doctor.
Ans. What did he announce?

3.      He catches the bus.
Ans. What does he catch?

4.       Nature heard the conversation.
Ans. What did Nature hear?

5.       The queen of violets saw by her side ­the converted violet.
Ans. Whom did the queen of violets see by her side?

6.       The morning routine started with tea.
Ans. How did the morning routine start?

7.       I didn’t mind vegetable shopping.
Ans. What did I not mind?

8.       The final indicator of a country’s independence is the way its children live.
Ans. What is the final indicator of a country’s independence?

9.       He launched an independent partnership.
Ans. What did he launch?

10.    The rain water rises the water table in the sand.
Ans. What does the rain water rise in the sand?

11.    The monsoon starts in June.
Ans. When does the monsoon start?

12.    We reached America.
Ans. Where did we reach?

13.    Dimple breaks the glass.
Ans. Who does break the glass?

14.    20 billion messages are sent every month worldwide.
Ans. How many messages are sent every month worldwide?

XIV. Direct and indirect speech.
1.       The doctor said, “I have given an injection and it will make you sleep.”
Ans. The doctor said that he had given an injection and it would make him sleep.
2.       “Who are you and what are you doing here?” she asked him. “I am a painter and I’m drawing pictures on my pitcher,” he said.
Ans. She asked him who he was and what he was doing there. He answered that he was a painter and was drawing pictures on his pitcher.
3.       “Something is burning,” said the man. “Can you smell it, Vinay?” (Change it into indirect speech)
Ans. The man said that something was burning. He asked Vinay whether he could smell it.
4.       She’d said, “What do you think – that somebody’s always going to be around to wait on you?
Ans. She asked him whether he thought that somebody would always be around to wait on him.
5.       He announced that he was going to be a doctor.
Ans. He announced, “I am going to be a doctor.”
6.       “Why not settle for something more, within your capabilities, like History or Psychology?” suggested the biology professor.
Ans. The biology professor suggested him that he should settle for something more within his capabilities like History or Psychology.
7.       “Dave”, said the other senior, gripping his shoulder, “I can see like an eagle.”
Ans. Gripping his shoulder, the other senior told Dave that he could see like an eagle.
8.       The violet opened her blue lips and said, “What an unfortunate am I among the flowers!”
Ans. The violet opened her blue lips and exclaimed that she was unfortunate among the flowers.
9.       She laughed and commented. “How strange is your talk!”
Ans. She laughed and commented that her talk was very strange.
10.    She approached and said, “Has greed entered your heart and humbled your senses”
Ans. She approached and asked whether greed had entered her heart and had humbled her senses.
11.    The queen of violets called to her family, saying, “Let the memory of this scene be a reminder of your good fortune.”
Ans. The queen of violets called to her family to say that the memory of that scene should be a reminder of their good fortune.
12.    He would give a reply, “We do not need a house of our own. I already own five houses.”
Ans. He would reply that they did not need a house of their own and added that he already owned five houses.
13.    I tried arguing, “But what difference does it make?”
Ans. I tried to argue saying that it did not make any difference.
14.    “Is it dead?” asked Neha. “No,” said Rahul. “ I can still feel its heart beating.”
Ans. Neha asked whether it was dead. Rahul replied in the negative. He added that he could still fell its heart beating.
15.    Gandhiji said that the greatest lessons in life are learnt from children.
Ans. Gandhiji said, “The greatest lessons in life are learnt from children”.

XV. Gerund and infinitive
1.       The sky poured turbulent waters on Mumbai to transform lanes and streets into rivers.
(Rewrite using gerund form of the underlined word)
Ans. The sky poured turbulent waters on Mumbai, transforming lanes and streets into rivers.
2.       Making omelettes and rolling outchappatis became my special duties.
Ans. To make omelettes and to roll out chappatis became my special duties.
3.       I got caught each time I tried arguing.
Ans. I got caught each time I tried to argue.
5.       Besides, in India there are always other people to do al that for you.
Ans. Besides, in India there are always other people doing all that for you.
6.       Finally, we tried to combine forces.
Ans. Finally, we tried combining forces.
7.       Looking for groceries was another matter.
Ans. To look for groceries was another matter.
8.       My parents preferred to patronize just on store.
Ans. My parents preferred patronizing just one store.
9.       Public may take some time to apprehend that it is being cheated.
Ans. Public may take some time apprehending that it is being cheated.

XVI. Identify the tense
1.       They had not been frank enough with Dave.
Ans. Past perfect tense.
2.       The four poets were eating at the dinner table.
Ans. Past continuous (progressive) tense.
3.       It all came back to me. (Rewrite using Past perfect Tense)
Ans. It had all come back to me.
4.       There was an amazing publication. (Use Past perfect tense and rewrite)
Ans. There had been an amazing publication.
5.       You are consoling me. (Use present perfect continuous tense)
Ans. You have been consoling me.
6.       Contentment has acted as a barrier. (Make Present Perfect Continuous tense)
Ans. Contentment has been acting as a barrier.
7.       It takes its name from a place in Chennai.
(Rewrite using Present Perfect Tense)
Ans. It has taken its name from a place in Chennai.

XVII. Rhetorical (Interrogative)type questions.
1.       Your time is limited. (frame a Rhetorical questions)
Ans. Isn’t Your time limited?
2.       You have been humble and sweet in all your deeds.
Ans. Haven’t you been humble and sweet in all your deeds?
3.       Ambition beyond existence is the essential purpose of our being.
Ans. Isn’t ambition beyond existence the essential purpose of our being?
4.       Today, the rains fall on empty streets.
Ans. Today, don’t the rains fall on empty streets?
5.       They aren’t free from social conditioning.
Ans. Are they free from social conditioning?
6.       We became part of a larger reality.
And. Didn’t we become a part of a larger reality?
7.       Imagination is everything.
Ans. Isn’t imagination everything?
8.       It’s not strange that my children refuse to believe that their grandfather and laughter were even strangers?
Ans. Is strange that my children refuse to believe that their grandfather and laughter were even strangers?
9.       A child is inherently curious about the world.
Ans. Isn’t child inherently curious about the world?
10.    This pre-drawn massacre is a regular feature.
Ans. Isn’t this pre – drawn massacre a regular feature.
11.    Happiness can’t be bought with cash?
Ans. Can happiness be bought with cash?
12.    This is an extreme case of intellectual subversion.
Ans. Isn’t this extreme case of intellectual subversion.

XVIII. Not only But also
1.       Nature had fashioned me to be short and poor.
Ans. Nature has fashioned me to be not only short but also poor.
2.       The distances shrunk, the geographical boundaries disappeared.
Ans. Not only did the distances shrink but also the geographical boundaries disappeared.
3.       This is the design of life. This is the secret of Existence.
Ans. This is not only the design of Life but also the secret of Existence.
4.       You are contented and meek dullards.
Ans. You are not only contented but also meek dullards.
5.       Business begins and ends with that simple precept.
Ans. Business not only begins but also ends with that simple precept.

XIX. No sooner …… than
1.       As I hearkened to the silence of the night, I heard the heavenly world talking.
Ans. No sooner did I hearken to the silence of the night than I heard the heavenly world talking.
2.       As soon as I reached the class, the students remained silent.
Ans. No sooner did I reach the class than the student remained silent.
3.       As soon as the monsoon starts, the farmers become happy.
Ans. No sooner does the monsoon starts than the farmers become happy.
4.       She fell down in one place when fellow pedestrian rushed instantly for her help.
Ans. No sooner did she fall down in one place than fellow pedestrian rushed instantly for her help.
5.       Most morning my wife enters the kitchen to find the scurrying away.
Ans. Most morning no sooner does my wife enter the kitchen than she find them scurrying away.
6.       To avoid spoilage a 4000 litre milk chilling plant was set up.
Ans. No sooner was a 4000 litre milks chilling plant set up than avoid spoilage.
7.       As soon as the leaf fell from the trees the wind swept it away?
Ans. No sooner did the leaf fall from the tree than the wind swept it away.
8.    As soon as the teacher entered the class, the students wished him good morning?
Ans. No sooner did the teacher enter the class than the student wished him good morning.

XX. Used to & would

1.       I would spend hours under it.
Ans. I used to spend hours under it.
2.       My father used to get transferred every year.
Ans. My father would get transferred every year.
3.       My mother would set up an establishment.
Ans. My mother used to set up an establishment.
4.       Our day used to start with the family huddling around my mother’s chulha.
Abs. Our day would start with the family huddling around my mother’s chulha.
5.       He would give a reply.
Ans. He used to give a reply.
6.       She would take her kitchen utensils and she and I would dig the rocky, white ant infested surroundings.
Ans. She used totake her kitchen utensils and she and I used to dig the rocky, white ant infested surroundings.
7.       She would cook for the family.
Ans. She used to cook for the family.

Complex Sentences: (because, when, while, where, as, before, after, that, since, as soon as, no sooner, if, unless, as .... though, if .... though, though, even though, although, whether, so .... that, till, only if, so that, until, which, ………)

Compound Sentence: (and, but, or, not only ...... but also, either ..... or, neither ..... nor,  etc )

Conversion of Simple Sentences into Compound sentences

1.       Simple: Seeing a snake he ran away.
Compound: He saw a snake and ran away.
2.       Simple: Besides being intelligent she is beautiful.
Compound: She is intelligent and she is beautiful.
3.       Inspite of his enormous wealth but still he is sad.
Compound: He possess enormous wealth still he is sad.
4.       Simple: Standing with his grief he is optimistic (confident).
Compound: He is grievous but still he is optimistic.
5.       Simple: To avoid danger you must be very careful.
Compound: Either you must be careful otherwise you will meet danger.

Conversion of Compound Sentences into Simple Sentences

1.       I ate apple, I went to Cinema.
Eating apple I went to Cinema.
2.       He passed M.B.B.S. and became a doctor.
Having passed M.B.B.S. he became a doctor.
3.       You must study well or you will not get the first class mark.
You must study well to get the first class mark.


Conversion of Simple sentences into Complex sentences


1.       He doesn’t know the date of his marriage.
He doesn’t know when he had married.
2.       He expects first class in the medical examination.
He expects that he will get first class in the medical examination.
3.       A man of justice gets respect every where
A man of who justice gets respect very where
4.       The reason for his success is unknown.
The reason how he succeeded is unknown.
5.       On seeing a police thief ran away.
As soon as thief saw the police ran away.

Conversion on Complex Sentences into Simple Sentences

1.       Since he was tired he could not go to office.
On account of his tiredness, he could not go to office
2.       What he aced was seen by all
His action was seen by all.
3.       He student who studies well gets high marks
The well studying student gets high marks.
4.       He went to the college where he studied
He went to his old college.
5.       He replaced the old wall clock which was damaged.
He replaced the damaged wall clock.
6.       He ran fast the he might not miss the train
He ran fast to catch the train
7.       After I had reserved the tickets I returned to my house.
Having reserved the tickets I returned to house.
Compound to Complex
1.       Study well or you will fail
Unless you study well you will fail.
2.       He saw the name board and entered the hotel.
Seeing the name board, he entered that hotel.
3.       He was suffering from fever and he was admitted in the hospital.
Since he was feverish he was admitted in the hospital.
4.       He is strong but he is timid (scared).
Although he is strong, he is timid.

Complex to Compound

1.       I saw a monkey which was sitting on a tree.
I saw the monkey. It was sitting on a tree.
2.       If you go to Agra you can see Tajmahal.
Go to Agra you can see Tajmahal.
3.       I suspect that he has done the murder.
He has done the murder. I suspect him.
4.       Though the soldier was wounded, but he went to the battle field again.
The soldier was wounded. He went to the battle field again.


XXI. IRREGULAR VERBS
Present tense
Past tense
Past participle
Arise
Arose
Arisen
Buy
Bought
Bought
Be
Was/were
Been
Beat
Beat
Beaten
Become
Became
Become
Begin
Began
Begun
Bend
Bent
Bent
Bet
Bet
Bet
Bite
Bit
Bitten
Blow
Blew
Blown
Break
Broke
Broken
Bring
Brought
Brought
Broadcast
Broadcast
Broadcast
Build
Built
Built
Burn
Burnt
Burnt
Catch
Caught
Caught
Choose
Chose
Chosen
Come
Came
Come
Creep
Crept
Crept
Cut
Cut
Cut
Deal
Dealt
Dealt
Dig
Dug
Dug
Do
Did
Done
Draw
Drew
Drawn
Drink
Drank
Drunk
Drive
Drove
Driven
Eat
Ate
Eaten
Fall
Fell
Fallen
Feed
Fed
Fed
Feel
Felt
Felt
Fight
Fought
Fought
Find
Found
Found
Flee
Fled
Fled
Fly
Flew
Flown
Forbid
Forbade
Forbidden
Forget
Forgot
Forgotten
Forgive
Forgave
Forgiven
Freeze
Froze
Frozen
Get
Got
Got
Give
Gave
Given
Go
Went
Gone
Grow
Grew
Grown
Hang
Hung
Hung
Hear
Heard
Heard
Hide
Hid
Hidden
Hit
Hit
Hit
Hold
Held
Held
Hurt
Hurt
Hurt
Keep
Kept
Kept
Know
Knew
Known
Lay
Laid
Laid
Lead
Led
Led
Leave
Left
Left
Lend
Lent
Lent
Let
Let
Let
Lie
Lay
Lain
Light
Lit
Lit
Lose
Lost
Lost
Make
Made
Made
Mean
Meant
Meant
Meet
Met
Met
Pay
Paid
Paid
Put
Put
Put
Read
Read
Read
Ride
Rode
Ridden
Rise
Rose
Risen
Run
Ran
Run
Say
Said
Said
See
Saw
Seen
Seek
Sought
Sought
Send
Sent
Sent
Set
Set
Set
Sew
Sewed
Sewed
Shake
Shook
Shaken
Shine
Shone
Shone
Shoot
Shot
Shot
Show
Showed
Showed
Shrink
Shrank
Shrunk
Shut
Shut
Shut
Sing
Sang
Sung
Sink
Sank
Sunk
Sit
Sat
Sat
Sleep
Slept
Slept
Side
Slid
Slid
Speak
Spoke
Spoken
Spend
Spent
Spent
Spit
Spat
Spat
Spread
Spread
Spread
Spring
Sprang
Sprung
Stand
Stood
Stood
Steal
Stole
Stolen
Stick
Stuck
Stuck
Sting
Stung
Stung
Stink
Stung
Stung
Strike
Struck
Struck
Sweat
Swore
Sworn
Sweep
Swept
Swept
Swim
Swam
Swum
Take
Took
Taken
Teach
Taught
Taught
Tear
Tore
Torn
Tell
Told
Told
Think
Thought
Thought
Throw
Threw
Thrown
Understand
Understood
Understood
Wake
Woke
Woken
Wear
Wore
Worn
Weep
Wept
Wept
Win
Won
Won
Write
Wrote
written






Noun
Adjective
Verb
Adverb
comfort
comfortably
comfort
comfortably
intuition
intuitive
-----
intuitively
extension / extend
extensive
extend
extensively
sacredness
sacred
----
sacredly
breath
breathless/breathy
breathe
breathlessly
nature
natural
naturalize
naturally
conviction
convincing
convict
convincingly
colony/colonization
colonial
colonise
colonially
excellence
excellent
excel
excellently
sacrifice
sacrificial
sacrifice
sacrificially
intensity
intense
intensify
intensely
emission
----
emit
-----
exhaustion
exhaustive
exhaust
exhaustively
poverty
poor
impoverish
poorly
convergence
convergent
converge
----
reception/receipt
receptive
receive
receptively
publication
----
publish
-----
criticism
critical
criticize
critically
minimum
minimum
minimize
-----
recovery
recoverable
recover

strength
strong
strengthen
strongly
aroma
aromatic
-----
aromatically
colour
colourful
colour
colourfully
mouth
oral
mouth
orally
inspiration
inspirational
inspire
inspirationally
photograph
photographic
photograph
photographically
beauty
beautiful
beautify
beautifully
merit
meritorious
merit
meritoriously
beauty
beautiful
beautify
beautifully
clarification
clear
clarify
clearly
accusation
accusatory
accuse
----
assumption
assumptive
assume
-----
marriage
marital/marriageable
marry
martially
repute
reputable
----
----
surety
sure
ensure
surely
society/socialization
social
socialize
socially
hunger
hungry
----
hungrily
exposition
expository
expose
-----
population
popular
popularize
popularly
coronation
-----
coronate
-----
impression
impressive
impress
impressively
generation
generative
generate
----
education
educational/educative
educate
educationally
richness/rich
rich
enrich
richly
----
edible
eat
----
centre
central
centralize
centrally
execution
executive
execute
-----
majesty
majestic
----
majestically
promotion
promotional
promote
-----
ego
egoistic
----
egoistically
conservation
conservative
conserve
conservatively

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