Admission of a partner



Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm:
Admission of a Partner
* How can a New Partner be Admitted:-
According to section 31(1) of Indian Partnership Act 1932, a person can be admitted as a new partner only with the consent of all exiting partners.

* A new partner is needed into the business due to the following reasons:-
1.      When more capital is needed for the expansion of the business.
2.      When a competent and experienced person is needed for the efficient running of the   business.
3.      To increase the goodwill and reputation of the business by taking a reputed and renowned
      Person into the partnership.
4.      To encourage a capable employee by taking him into the partnership.

* Following Adjustments are needed at the time of the admission of a new partner :-
1.   Calculation of new profit sharing ratio.
2.   Accounting treatment of goodwill.
3.   Accounting treatment for revaluation of Assets and Liabilities.
4.   Accounting treatment of reserves and accumulated profits.
5.   Adjustment of capitals on the basis of new profit sharing ratio.

* Calculation of New Profit Sharing Ratio:

1.      When only the ratio of new partner is given in the question, then in the absence of any instructions. It is presumed that the old partner will continue to share the remaining profits in the same ratio in which they were sharing before the admission of a new partner.

2.      The new partner “purchases” his share of profit from the old  partners equally. In such cases the new profit sharing ratios of the old partners will be as certained by deducting the sacrifice made by them from their existing share of profits.

     New Profit Ratio = Old Ratio - Sacrifice

3.      The new partner “purchases” his share of profit from the old  partners in particular ratio. In such cases the new profit sharing ratio of the old partners will be calculated after deducting the sacrifice made by a partner from his existing share of profit.                         
                  
     New Profit Ratio = Old Ratio - Sacrifice



           4.      When the old partners surrender a particular fraction of their share in favour of the new
      Partner then.,

     Surrendering Share = Surrendered Share X Old Ratio.
      New Ratio              = Old Ratio - Surrendering Share.
      Sacrifice Ratio = Old Ratio - New Ratio.

*Accounting Treatment of Goodwill on the Admission of a Partner :

1.   When the amount of goodwill (premium) is paid privately.
         :-      No Entry

2.   When the new partner brings his share of goodwill (premium) in cash:
a.) When the amount of goodwill/ premium brought in by the new partner is retained in
the business:-
                                     i.)       Cash/ Bank A/c                           Dr.
                                                   To goodwill A/c

                                      ii.)      Goodwill A/c                              Dr   ( in sacrifice ratio)
                                                   To Old  partners’ capital A/c

b.) When  goodwill/premium brought in by  the new partner is withdrawn by the old partners:-
                                    i.)        Old Partners’ capital A/c                Dr.  
                                                            To Cash / Bank A/c

*   When goodwill already appears in the books and  new partners brings his share of goodwill/premium in cash:-

      First of all the existing goodwill account will have to be written off.  For  this purpose old partners’ capital accounts are debited in old   ratio and goodwill account is credited. 

                                  Old partners’ capital A/c          Dr.
                                                  To goodwill A/c                  ( in old ratio)

      Remaining entries remains same for bring goodwill in cash.

  * When the new partner does not bring his share of goodwill/premium in cash:-
                   New partner’s current A/c                 Dr.    (from his share of goodwill)
                                      To old partners’ capital A/c        (in sacrifice ratio)

 *  When goodwill already appears in the books and  new partner does not bring his share of goodwill/premium in cash:-
                           
                      i.)          Old partners’ capital A/c                     Dr.
                                                To goodwill A/c   (in old ratio)

                      ii.)         New partner’s current A/c                   Dr.
                                                To old partner’s capital A/c  (in sacrifice ratio )

*   When new partner brings in only a part of his share of goodwill:-

                       i.)         Cash/bank  A/c                                Dr.
                                                To  goodwill A/c 

                       ii.)        Goodwill   A/c                                 Dr.
                                    New partner’s  current A/c             Dr.
                                         To Old partner’s capital A/c (in sacrifice ratio)

*   Revaluation of assets & liabilities :-
     Revaluation account :-
Account which is prepared to record changes in the value of assets & liabilities at time of admission, retirement, death and change in profit ratio of existing partners.  Proforma of Revaluation Account is given below :-

Revaluation Account

Particulars
Amount
Particulars
Amount
To Decrease in value of assets
To Increase in value of liabilities
To Unrecorded liabilities
To Profit on revaluation          transferred to partner’s capital accounts (in old ratio)
By Increase in value of assets
By Decrease in value of liabilities
By unrecorded assets
By loss on revaluation          transferred to partners’ capital accounts (in old ratio)

Partners’ Capital Account
Particulars
  A
B
 C
Particulars
 A
 B
C
To drawings
To interest on drawings
To profit & loss (Share of loss)
To revaluation A/c (share of loss)
To balance c/d
By balance b/d
By cash/bank A/c
By interest on capital
By salary
By commission
By P&L appropriation A/c (share of profit)
By revaluation A/c (share of profit)
   
i.)  For decrease in the value of assets & increase in the value of Assets / unrecorded Assets:-
          
                        1.         Revaluation A/c                  Dr.
                                                To assets A/c                                          (decrease )

                        2.         Assets A/c                             Dr.
                                                To revaluation A/c                                  (increase)

                      3.           Unrecorded assets A/c        Dr.
                                                To revaluation A/c         
         
ii.)  For increase / decrease of liabilities or unrecorded liabilities :-                                                               1.      Revaluation A/c.                        Dr.
                                             To liabilities A/c                               (increase )        

                        2.         Liabilities A/c                       Dr.
                                                To Revaluation A/c                            (decrease)

                        3.         Revaluation A/c                   Dr
                                                To unrecorded liabilities A/c

iii.) Revaluation A/c shows profit or loss :-
                        1.         Revaluation A/c.                  Dr.                   (in profit)
                                                To Old partners’ capital A/c                    (in old ratio)

                        2.         Old partners’ capital A/c.   Dr.                   (in loss)
                                         To revaluation A/c                                              (in old ratio)

* Accounting  treatment of reserves and accumulated profits or losses :-
i.)      For distributing reserves and accumulated profits among old partners in old ratio -
                                    General reserve A/c             Dr.
                                    Reserve A/c                         Dr.
                                    P&L A/c   {cr. Balance}     Dr.
                                                 To old partners’ capital a/c / current a/c.    

ii.)    For distributing accumulated losses among old partners in old ratio-
                                    Old partner’s capital A/c     Dr.
                                                To P&L  A/c { Dr. balance} 

iii.)  For distributing surplus of specific funds:-
                                    Workmen’s compensation fund A/c       Dr.
                                    Investment fluctuation fund A/c             Dr.
                                                To Old Partner’s Capital a/c. / Current a/c.

*   Adjustment of old partner’s capital accounts on the basis of new partner’s capital:-
i.)   If the existing capital of any partner is less then his newly calculated capital:-
                                    Bank A/c / Partner’s Current a/c.               Dr.
                                                To Old Partner’s Capital A/c.  

ii)  If the existing capital of any partner is more than his newly calculated capital :
                                    Old Partner’s Capital A/c.               Dr.

                                                To Bank A/c. / Partner’s Current A/c.