ENGLISH FOR BOARD EXAM


1.    Write a letter to your friend describing your pet to him/her.
101/B Wing Montana,
Veera Desai Rd.,
Andheri (West),
Mumbai – 400 059.
13th February, 2013.
Dear Reena,
It feels so good to have lots of leisure time in your hand and nothing to do. I had a very hectic schedule till Sunday but now I am relaxed. I have something wonderful to share with you. Mother and father have allowed me to keep a pet dog.
Yes, a few days back, my dad’s friend approached us if we were interested to buy a Labrador breed puppy which his friend wanted to sell. Father gave in and guess what! The cute, cuddly two year old is mine. It is grey in colour with floppy ears. I have named him ‘Mischief’ as he justifies it. His arrival has cheered all our family members. He is a brat who wants a lot of attention and
pampering. The best part is that he understands like a small child when we are talking about him. He loves people admiring him but does not like to be held by strangers. He gave us a tough time during Diwali as the deafening crackers scared him a lot. He preferred to remain under our sofa. I could go on and on with a sense of pride the way a parent would express fondness for his child.
Do drop in home to meet Mischief. My world revolves around him. Give my regards to your parents.
Your loving friend,
Xyz
2.    Read the following advertisement and prepare a letter of application.
WANTED
Young. Male/Female sales representatives.
Candidates should be graduates with a good command of English and Marathi. Apply with detail Box A - 605. TOI. Mumbai - 400 001.
C/2, Gulmohar Park,
J.J.Road, Mahim,
Mumbai - 400 016.
6th May, 1999.
To
The Advertiser,
Box A - 605,
The Times of India,
Mumbai - 400 001.
Reference : Your advertisement in the “The Times of India”
      dated 5th May '99.
Subject : Application for the post of sales representative.
Dear Sir,
With reference to your advertisement for a sales representative in yesterdays issue of ‘Times of India’. I wish to apply for the post. I passed my B.com with a first class from Bombay University in May 1998. I have just completed a diploma course in Business Management and Sales. I am 23 years old and I have a fine physique. I have a good command of English, as I studied at St. Xaviers High School and Marathi is my mother tongue. I can also speak Hindi and Gujarati quite well. I have a good aptitude for salesmanship. I assure you that if I am given the post. I shall give it my very best and shall not give you any chance to reconsider your decision.
Yours faithfully,
XYZ.
Enclosures : (i) CV.
(ii) Photocopy of examination results.
(iii) Certificate from APTECH.
3.    Write a letter to your younger brother who was caught copying in his exams. Advise him on values, and principles in life.
124, Nehru Apartments,
Worli,
Mumbai – 400 025.
20th September, 2012.
Dear Jash,
Thanks for your lovely birthday card. It was very well made. Yesterday, I visited a book exhibition and have picked up a book on “Human Values” for you. After all, character plays a very significant role in one’s life.
I was shocked to hear from mother that you were caught copying in your exams. It was shocking and very embarrassing to know this. What’s wrong with you? Weren’t you prepared for the paper? Even if you hadn’t studied, what was the need to cheat? Remember, it is important to be a good human being first. Scoring a few more marks by employing low means is not right. Frankly speaking, I was ashamed as I was the Head boy in class X and the thought that the Principal and the teachers would discuss about my brother cheating in class was a very disturbing thought. Mother told me that she has to meet the Principal along with Father. What an embarrassing moment for them! Our deeds reflect our family background, don’t you know that? Hope you realize your mistake and promise yourself to be honest always. You can  improve for the best only if you are determined to do so. Take care. All the Best.
Your loving brother,
XYZ.
4.    Write a complaint letter regarding over flow of gutter in your locality / village.

                                                                                                                                                            7G, Sonia Apartments,                                   Rainbow colony,
                                 M.G. Road,
                                 Mahim (E),
.                                Mumbai:- 400 016.
                                 24th February, 2010
To,
The Sub Engineer,
Maharashtra State Pollution Control Board,
Dadar (w),
Mumbai – 400 021.

      Subject: Complaint letter over flow of gutter in our locality.
Respected Sir,
                       We are totally five hundred families residing in our locality. We are facing a severe problem of growing instances of overflow of gutter for the last three months in our locality.
                       This over flow in gutter causes the problem of bad odour and leads to growth of mosquitoes which may lead to malaria. Small children playing outside the door have already affected by diarrhoea. Sometimes we feel vomiting and nausea.
                       We have already given many complaints to our local authority. They are always giving us empty promises and doing nothing. So kindly am requesting you to look into this matter personally. If you do the needful then I shall be very much thankful to you.

Thanking You,
                                                                                                                                    Yours Faithfully,
                                                                                                                                          X y z
5.      Write a complaint letter regarding irregular electric supply in your locality / village.

7G, Sonia Apartments,                               
Rainbow colony,
                                 M.G. Road,
                                 Mahim (E),
.                                Mumbai:- 400 016.
                                 24th February, 2010
To,
The Sub Engineer,
Maharashtra State Electricity Board,
Dadar (w),
Mumbai – 400 021.

  Subject: Complaint letter regarding irregular electricity supply.
Respected Sir,
                       We are totally five hundred families residing in our locality. We are facing a severe problem of growing instances of power failure for the last three months in our locality.
                       In our locality there are many students who are preparing for their upcoming Board Exams as well as for other final examinations. But, this irregularity in electric supply is causing obstacles in their preparation. Sir, you also know, this year the summer is extremely hot so the old people facing it very difficult to tackle the problem.  The problems of current supply also lead to some other illegal activities in our locality.
                       We have already given many complaints to our local authority. They are always giving us empty promises and doing nothing. So kindly am requesting you to look into this matter personally. If you do the needful then I shall be very much thankful to you.
Thanking You,
                                                                 Yours Faithfully,
                                                                           X y z
6.     Write a complaint letter regarding irregular Water supply in your locality / village.
                                                                                                                                                            7G, Sonia Apartments,                                   Rainbow colony,
                                 M.G. Road,
                                 Mahim (E),
.                                Mumbai:- 400 016.
                                 24th February, 2010
To,
The Sub Engineer,
Maharashtra State Water Supply Board,
Dadar (w),
Mumbai – 400 021.
       Subject: Complaint letter regarding irregular water supply.
Respected Sir,
                       We are totally five hundred families residing in our locality. We are facing a severe problem of growing instances of insufficient water supply for the last three months in our locality.
                       We have only 50 taps for our five hundred families, it means on an average a tap for every 10 families, which is already insufficient. But during the last three months the problem has increased to a lot due to less supply of water. Because of less supply of water there is a growing instance of disputes among our local people. Many times we have to return home with our empty vessels.
                       We have already given many complaints to our local authority. They are always giving us empty promises and doing nothing. So kindly am requesting you to look into this matter personally. If you do the needful then I shall be very much thankful to you.
Thanking You,
                                               Yours Faithfully,
                                                        X y z

7.      Letter to your friend explaining him about the importance of Joint family system.
                                   7G, Sonia Apartments,                                   Rainbow colony,
                                 M.G. Road,
                                 Mahim (E),
.                                Mumbai:- 400 016.
                                 24th February, 2010
Dear friend,

                        I received your letter confirming your decision to spend this vacation with us. We were all eagerly waiting to see you. However, you have mentioned in your letter about our Joint Family system and its disadvantages like no privacy, lots of work every day, need to get permission for outing, need to adjust with everyone to avoid problems.
                       But, friend in every system there are some advantages and disadvantages. You have seen only the demerits of joint family system; let me explain its wonderful advantages. You have persons to look after you. Works can be shared. Expenses can be shared. Guidance will be there. Helping – hands are always there in your sorrow. Your happiness will be doubled when it shared with them. Caring will be there. Relationship will be improved. Responsibility will be there.  If you are sick no need to depend on hotels. Someone else will cook for you. Always remember this, the beauty about the Indian culture lies in its age-long prevailing tradition of the joint family system.
                       I hope you will find nice spending time with us in this vacation and also understand the importance of joint family system. I am eagerly waiting for the date to receive you from the railway station.
                                                                                                                                                                          Yours lovingly,
8.     Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper drawing his attention to the illegal parking of truck in your lane.
                                                                                                                                    7G, Sonia Apartments, 
                           Rainbow colony,
                                 M.G. Road,
                                 Mahim (E),
.                                Mumbai:- 400 016.
                                 24th February, 2010
The Editor,
Times of India News Paper,
Mumbai: - 400 001.
           Subject: Complain against the illegal parking of truck.
Respected sir,
                       I have been the resident of the above mentioned area for the last twenty years. The people here are all educated and go out to work and children go to school. I would like to bring to your notice that the roads in this area are fully filled with illegal parking of trucks, that it becomes very difficult to even walk specially during the rains. Not only this even the street lights are so poor, that it becomes very difficult for people to walk or take out their vehicles during late in the evening.
                       One must be aware that how irresponsible is to park vehicles like trucks in the residential area. Hence I request you to consider it and through your newspaper, I want to make one request to the concerned authority to consider this matter as important park the trucks in some other non residential areas.
                       I shall be obliged if you publish my letter in your newspaper so that it catches the attention of the Councilor of our ward and an urgent action is taken.
Thanking you,
                                                                       Yours faithfully,
                                                                                y   Z.
9.    Write a letter of enquiry to the manager of a travel agency about a proposed vacation trip you intend to make to Delhi, Simla and Agra.
7G, Sonia Apartments,              
Rainbow colony,
                                 M.G. Road,
                                 Mahim (E),
.                                Mumbai:- 400 016.
                                 24th February, 2010The Manager,
The General travel agency,
Mahim (W),
Mumbai - 400 016.
Subject: Enquiry about a proposed vacation trip to Delhi, Shimla and Agra.
Respected sir,
                       I, XYZ, one of the teacher staff of our school. We teachers had a meeting with our Principal. The authorities have agreed to give us the permission to conduct the vacation trip to Delhi, Shimla and Agra.
                       Kindly furnish us with the necessary details and the total cost for 500 students and 20 staff members. Also send your quotations for other places.
                       Eagerly awaiting your reasonable quotation.
Thanking you,
                                                                 Yours faithfully,
                                                                       X Y Z. 
10. Write an application letter for the post of librarian for a public library.
7G, Sonia Apartments,              
Rainbow colony,
                                 M.G. Road,
                                 Mahim (E),
.                                Mumbai:- 400 016.
                                 24th February, 2010
To,
The Manager,
The General Public Library,
Dadar (W),
Mumbai – 400 021.
 Reference :  Your advertisement in “The Times of India” dated 23rd, February, 2010.
 Subject    :           Application letter for the post of Librarian.
Respected sir,
                       With reference to your advertisement for the post of librarian in “The Times of India” dated 23rd, February, 2010. I wish to apply for the same.
                       I am a very energetic person with excellent communication skill and ready to face any target set by your esteemed public library. I am will to work hard and being young I am also eager to add knowledge with experience. I hold a M.Com degree from “University of Mumbai” and a Diploma in Library Science from “Indira Gandhi Open University”, New Delhi. I have also done computer courses like Basic, Tally – 9 as well as programming languages like C, C++ from NIIT, Matunga. I have 2 years experience as a assistant in local library, Mahim.
                       My resume is sent here with, for your reference. I shall be much thankful to you, if you grant me an interview call at your convenient time. I am looking forward to join your esteemed Public library as early as possible.
Thanking You,
                                                               Yours Faithfully,
                                                                                                                                               Xyz.
Encl: - Resume and Xerox copy of educational certificates.

11.  Write an application letter for the post of accountant.
7G, Sonia Apartments, 
Rainbow colony,
                                 M.G. Road,
                                 Mahim (E),
.                                Mumbai:- 400 016.
                                 24th February, 2010
To,
The Manager,
The General company,
Dadar (W),
Mumbai – 400 021.
 Reference  :   Your advertisement in “The Times of India” dated 23rd, February, 2010.
 Subject :      Application letter for the post of Accountant.
Respected sir,
                       With reference to your advertisement for the post of accountant in “The Times of India” dated 23rd, February, 2010. I wish to apply for the same.
                       I am a very energetic person with excellent communication skill and ready to face any target set by your esteemed company. I am willing to work hard and being young I am also eager to add knowledge with experience. I hold an M.Com degree from “University of Mumbai” and a Diploma in Cost Account from “Indira Gandhi Open University”, New Delhi. I have also done computer courses like Basic, Tally – 9 as well as programming languages like C, C++ from NIIT, Matunga. I have 2 years experience as an assistant accountant in local company, Mahim.
                       My resume is sent here with, for your reference. I shall be much thankful to you, if you grant me an interview call at your convenient time. I am looking forward to join your esteemed company as early as possible. 
Thanking You,
                                                  Yours Faithfully,
                                                            Xyz.
Encl: - Resume and Xerox copy of educational certificates.

12.   Write an application letter for the post of teacher.
                                                                                                                                                7G, Sonia Apartments,                                   Rainbow colony,
                                 M.G. Road,
                                 Mahim (E),
                                 Mumbai:- 400 016.
                                 24th February, 2010
To,
The Principal,
The General High School,
Dadar (W),
Mumbai – 400 021.

  Reference  :   Your advertisement in “The Times of India” dated 23rd, February, 2010.
  Subject :           Application letter for the post of Teacher.
Respected sir,
                       With reference to your advertisement for the post of Teacher in “The Times of India” dated 23rd, February, 2010. I wish to apply for the same.
                       I am a very energetic person with excellent communication skill and ready to face any target set by your esteemed School. I am willing to work hard and being young I am also eager to add knowledge with experience. I hold a B.A. degree from “University of Mumbai” and I have done B.Ed. from “Indira Gandhi Open University”, New Delhi. I have also done computer courses like Basic, Tally – 9 as well as programming languages like C, C++ from NIIT, Matunga. I have 2 years experience as a English Teacher in Local School, Mahim.
                       My resume is sent here with, for your reference. I shall be much thankful to you, If you grant me an interview call at your convenient time. I am looking forward to join your esteemed School as early as possible.
Thanking You,                                                                                                                                                 Yours Faithfully,
                                                           Xyz.
Encl: - Resume and Xerox copy of educational certificates.

13. Your younger brother who is staying in a hostel has failed in the Terminal examination and has become nervous. He is thinking to give up studies. Write a letter persuading him to continue the efforts and get success.
                                                                                                                                                7G, Sonia Apartments, 
                                 Rainbow colony,
                                 M.G. Road,
                                 Mahim (E),
                                 Mumbai:- 400 016.
                                 24th February, 2010
Dear brother,
                       I hope this letter of mine finds you in the pink of health. But what is this I hear about you? Are you really seriously planning to give up your studies, just because you failed in the terminal examination? It would then be a rash decision made without any fore-thought and careful reflection. A solitary failure should not dishearten you. It is not the end of the world for you yet. You must count your blessings. You are full of bouncing energy and very much in the prime of your youth. Should you decide to give up your studies, you will be a big loser. You will be tagged as a school drop - out.
                       Worse still, without adequate formal education, you will not be able to forge ahead in life. The prospects for you anywhere and everywhere are bound to be bleak. Dearest brother, there is no point in being unduly nervous and diffident. Keep on working and brush up your weak subjects then you are likely to pass your next examination with flying colours.
                       And what is more, this achievement is not beyond you. Your are quick on the uptake, this should make your task much easier and simpler. I would now in all seriousness urge you to have second thoughts on your rather rash decision to give up studies.
                                                                                                                                           Yours lovingly,
                                                                                                                                                A B C
14. You had invited your friend for a vacation at your native place. Somehow he/she could not arrive in time in spite of his/her assurance. Write a letter asking him/her about the reason and tell about your worries.

                                    7G, Sonia Apartments, 
                                 Rainbow colony,
                                 M.G. Road,
                                 Mahim (E),
                                 Mumbai:- 400 016.
                                 24th February, 2010                                                                             
Dear Friend,
                       I received your letter long ago confirming your decision to spend this vacation with us. We were all eagerly waiting to see you. However, the vacation is almost over and we know that there must have been a strong reason for cancelling the arrival.
                       Mother had special plans for us about spending holidays in Bangalore. Your busy life in Mumbai certainly needed a little change and we had taken care of that in our plans which included an excursion to Krishnaraj sagar where the famous Brindavan Garden is. As this is the fag end of vacation and yet there is no sign of your arrival we lost hopes. Your recent letter confirming your ticket reservation makes us all the more anxious to know as to the reasons for your last minute cancellation. Our disappointment for your not coming has turned into anxiousness and we are all worried about you.
                       Everyone is forwarding his/her reasons for your sudden dropping the plans to come to Bangalore and I tell you, more we think of the reasons the more worried it makes us all. Therefore, please write to us about the emergency that caused your change in the plans.
                       We shall be anxiously waiting to hear from you.
                                                                                                            Yours lovingly
                                                                                                                  ABC


REPORT WRITING
1. Write a report on the following headline.
MASKED MEN SHOOT BANK MANAGER
Mumbai, February, 24
By a Staff Reporter,
In a daring day light robbery, three masked men entered the Indian Bank, Mahim branch on Monday at 10 a.m. When the Manager refused to cooperate, he was fired at chest from a N – 38 revolver and was seriously injured. The three masked men were escaped in a waiting Red Maruti Van with a loot of 5 lakhs.
The Bank Manager Mr. Anbu Selvan, was rushed to Sion Hospital. He had sustained two bullet wounds on his chest. Doctors have reported that his condition is still critical. When contacted Mr. Ragavan, commissioner of Police said that certain important clues have been inspected which would definitely lead to the arrest of the bank robbers.
30 SCHOOL CHILDREN KILLED IN BUS  TRUCK ACCIDENT.
Mumbai, February, 24
By a Staff Reporter,
Thirty school children were killed when a State Transport Bus was smashed by a truck near Dadar yesterday.
Sixty five students and five teachers of General English High School were on their way to Water Kingdom at about 9.40 a.m., when the Municipal Garbage truck smashed the State Transport Bus. The truck driver was trying to save a boy who was crossing the road. Twenty five students and 3 teachers were seriously injured; they were immediately taken to the Sion Hospital. When contacted Mr. Ragavan, commissioner of Police said that investigations were going on detailed report will be given only after the proper investigation.
HEAVY RAINS DISTURBED NORMAL LIFE
Mumbai, February, 24
By a Staff Reporter,
Heavy, rains continued for the third day in Mumbai, bringing all normal life to a standstill. The Central part of the city was the worst affected with the water level rising above 3 feet in some areas.
Most of the main roads were completely flooded. In many areas the electric poles had fallen down and thus the whole city faced darkness. The situation may improve by tomorrow. The spokesperson of B.E.S.T. said that, “All the city buses were cancelled, which leads to a major problem for a common man”
FOOD POISONING AFFECTS 50 SCHOOL CHILDREN
Mumbai, February, 24
By a Staff Reporter,
Over 30 children were battling for their lives in Sion Hospital after they had consumed sweets distributed by the School at a function, yesterday.
The students of the General English High School, King Circle were given sweet brought from a local shop on the occasion of Annual Day celebration of the School. Immediately after consuming sweets the children felt nausea and dizziness. Some started vomiting and were rushed to Sion Hospital. The police have registered a case against the shopkeeper and arrested him. Parents were worried for the speedy recovery of their children.
INDIA WINS SECOND TEST MATCH AGAINST AUSTRALIA
Mumbai, February, 24
By a Staff Reporter,
India wins second test match against Australia at Eden Garden, today. The two teams now stand level.
The little master Sachin and Skipper (captain) Dhoni who built up a partnership of one sixty runs taking up the total to 350. However, McGrath, bowling took the toll and he took 4 wickets. Later the overall target of 540 runs seemed to be tough for the Australian team. The Australian Skipper Ricky Ponting was disappointed with their players performance. As none of the Australian player has scored a century except the Skipper. Ricky Ponting himself is the highest scorer with 103 runs. The Ponting said, “My team would fight back in the Third and final test in Mumbai”.

FACT FILE
NOTE: - In this section, facts have to be written. This is not subjective but objective, hence it is known as fact file.

1.      Write a fact file of a place of your interest keeping in mind the following.
a.      Name of Place
b.      Conveyance
c.       Distance from Mumbai.
d.      Climate
e.      Things to do
Ans.
 Name of Place                  :           Matheran.
 Conveyance                     :           Train, Bus, Car
 Distance from Mumbai    :           90 Kms.
 Climate              :           Cool in Summer, Cold in winter.
Things to do :Various points to visit, Shopping clothes, cap, bag.

2.      Prepare a fact file about the place you visited during the Diwali Holidays.
Ans.
Name of the Place      :           Ooty in Tamil Nadu.
Terrain :  Plain – hills, rocky ground, very near to Coastline.
Temperature : 5 to 19 degrees in winter and 20 to 25 degrees in summer.
Modes of transport     :           Plane, Train, Bus, Car.
Fare    :  Depends on the distance from other places and the mode of transport choosen.
Food                            :           Rice, Idli, Dosa.
Sightseeing  : Dolphin nose, Flower Garden, Government Botanical Garden, Doddabetta, The Mukkurthi Peak & National Park, Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Pykara, Deer Park.
 Anything Special:   Handicraft and specific paintings made by the local residents, Special goodies for the festival are made available, clothes are available in specific local variety which has the essence of the prevalent culture of the place. 
Entertainment  :    Boating, surfing, go – karting, bungee diving, paragliding, trekking, river rafting, fishing.

3. Prepare a fact file of a Bird Sanctuary you have visited.
Fact file of Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary
Location : Banks of Vembanad Lake.
Known As : Queen of Vembanad.
Distance : Kottayam - 15 km, Nedumbassery - 106 km, Periyar - 185 km.
Getting there : Nearest Airport - Kochi Airport Nedumbassery - 106 km.
Nearest Rail - Kottayam Junction -15 km.
Road - 15 km from Kottayam. S-H-1 links Kumarakom to Cochin and Trivendrum.
Best time to visit : November to February.
Major wildlife : Waterfowl, Cuckoo, Owls, Egrets, Herons Water Ducks,
Attractions Parrots, Teal, Larks, Flycatchers, Wood Beetle, Mangrove Forests, Green Paddy Fields and Coconut Groves.
Uniqueness : To see the migratory Siberian Cranes.
Where to eat : Vembanad Seawood Bar, Restaurants - Ettukettu, Thattukada, Tharavadu, Fort Kochi, Pearlspot.
Other attractions: Houseboat and Motorboat Cruise, Tasting Delicious Kottanad Cuisine.
Staying options : Kumarakom Lake Resort, Coconut Lagoon, Taj Garden Retreat, Backwater Ripples, Illikkalam Lake Resort, Golden Waters.
TOURIST LEAFLET

1.       Prepare a Shot tourist leaflet about your village / town indicate:
                           i.      How to go there?
                          ii.      Where to stay/ Accommodation
                        iii.      When to visit?
                        iv.      What to see?
                         v.      Anything special/ Add your own points.
Ans.
Bangalore

Introduction:                         Bangalore is a city of Roses with beautiful gardens. It is the capital city of Karnataka. It is a highly developed city.

i.                     How to go there: Bangalore is well connected with rest of India. One can go to Bangalore by the way of Plane, Bus
      or Train:
      Plane: Daily two flights namely IA – 550 and IA – 330 from Mumbai to Bangalore are available.
Bus: The State Transport Bus Services and many other private Bus Services are available from Mumbai to Bangalore.
      Train: There are many trains available which can take you to Bangalore. The most convenient is
      “Mumbai – Bangalore Express”
ii.                    Where to Stay:     Accommodation is no problem in Bangalore. The Government tourist Hotels and other Big and
                 Small hotels are available to suit ever one’s budget.
iii.                  When to Visit:      October to December is the best time of the year to visit Bangalore.
iv.                  What to See:        The climate and scenery of Bangalore is mind blowing. It is a well planned city with huge roads, parks, theatres, and gardens, there are many interesting places to see like Bull Temple, Tippu Palace, Glass house, the Museum, Vishan Sabha and many Palatial Buildings. It is also known as little Singapore.
v.                   Anything Special As far as food is concerned Bangalore is famous for Noodles, Gobi Manchurian, Channa Masala,  Idli fry, Prawns fry, Mugal Briyani, etc. The people are very culture oriented and highly intelligent. They give more importance to their education.

2.       Prepare a Shot tourist leaflet about your village / town indicate:
                           i.      How to go there?
                          ii.      Where to stay/ Accommodation
                        iii.      When to visit?
                        iv.      What to see?
                         v.      Anything special/ Add your own points.
Ans.
CHENNAI

Introduction: Chennai is a city of Temple with beautiful architecture. It is the capital city of Tamil Nadu. It is a highly developed city. 

i.                     How to go there: Chennai is well connected with rest of India. One can go to Chennai by the way of Plane, Bus
      or Train:
      Plane: Daily two flights namely IA – 550 and IA – 330 from Mumbai to Chennai are available.
Bus: The State Transport Bus Services and many other private Bus Services are available from Mumbai to Chennai.
      Train: There are many trains available which can take you to Chennai. The most convenient is
      “Mumbai – Chennai Express”
ii.                    Where to Stay:     Accommodation is no problem in Chennai. The Government tourist Hotels and other Big and
                 Small hotels are available to suit ever one’s budget.
iii.                  When to Visit:      June to October is the best time of the year to visit Chennai.
iv.                  What to See:        The climate and scenery of Chennai is mind blowing. It is a well planned city with huge roads, parks, theatres, and gardens, there are many interesting places to see like Bull Temple, Lord Ganesh Temple, Marina Beach, Anna samathi, Lord Murugan Temple, Palatial Buildings, etc, it is also known as little New York.
v.                   Anything Special As far as food is concerned Chennai is famous for Idli, Vada, Sambar, Masal dosa, Idli fry, Prawns fry, Mugal Briyani, etc. The people are very culture oriented and highly intelligent. They give more importance to their education.

3.       Prepare a Shot tourist leaflet about Hill Station:
                           i.      How to go there?
                          ii.      Where to stay/ Accommodation
                        iii.      When to visit?
                        iv.      What to see?
                         v.      Anything special/ Add your own points.
Ans.
OOTY 

Introduction:                         Ooty is the queen of Hill with beautiful lakes, rivers, scenery, etc. It is situated in the heart of Tamil Nadu.
i.                     How to go there: Ooty is well connected with rest of India. One can go to Chennai by the way of Plane, Bus
      or Train:
      Plane: Daily two flights namely IA – 550 and IA – 330 from Mumbai to Ooty are available.
Bus: The State Transport Bus Services and many other private Bus Services are available from Mumbai to Ooty.
      Train: There are many trains available which can take you to Ooty. The most convenient is “Mumbai – Ooty Express”
ii.                    Where to Stay:     Accommodation is no problem in Ooty. The Government tourist Hotels and other Big and
                  Small hotels are available to suit ever one’s budget.
iii.                  When to Visit:      June to October is the best time of the year to visit Ooty.
iv.                  What to See:        The climate and scenery of Ooty is mind – blowing. It is a well planned hill station  with huge roads, parks, theatres, and gardens, there are many interesting places to see like Bull Temple, Lord Ganesh Temple, Dolphin Nose, Flower Garden,  Lord Murugan Temple, Palatial Buildings, etc,.
v.                   Shopping:             Shopping in Ooty is fun. One can buy very traditional and well as modern things from Ooty. Ooty is very famous for woollen clothes.     
vi.                  Anything Special As far as food is concerned Ooty is famous for Black tea, Idli, Vada, Sambar, Masala dosa, Idli fry, Prawns fry, Mugal Briyani, etc. The people are very culture oriented and highly intelligent. They give more importance to their education.
       
      Write a speech to be delivered among your class mates, regarding blood donation.
BLOOD DONATION
                       Dear friends, we have one life let us make our one life more meaningful by donating blood. Blood donation is the mother of all donations. Blood donation directly gives life to another human being. It is not only saves one individual but also the entire family of that individual. A person can donate blood thrice in a year. The donated blood will be thoroughly checked and stored up in a secured form. For donating blood a person must have a weight of at least 45 kg.
                       Many people have misunderstandings about bold donation. They feel by donating blood they will fall sick. But it is not like so, the donated blood will automatically regenerate by our body itself within four to five hours after donating the blood. A person will be prohibited from donating blood if he drank alcohol during the last six hours.
                       So friends, let us put our hands together and make a promise to donate blood at least once in a year.

2.      Write a speech to be delivered among your class mates, regarding EYE donation
EYE DONATION
                       Dear Friends, we have one life let us make our one life more meaningful by donating eyes. Eye donation is the mother of all donations. Eye donation directly gives vision to another human being. It is not only gives vision to one individual but also to the entire family of that individual. A person who wishes to donate his eyes after his death has to go to an eye hospital and need to register his name with the hospital.
                       The information about the person who agreed to donate eyes and died is to be given to the respective hospital as early as possible. So, that his eyes can be removed and saved within six hours. We can see the world even after the death of ourselves by the way of donating eyes.
                       So, friends let us put our hands together and make a promise to donate eyes after our death.
 Prepare a poster to highlight the benefits of eating bananas for healthy eating.
Text Box: A BANANA A DAY KEEPS THE DOCTOR AWAY Eat a banana every day BENEFITS à helps in regulating blood pressure à lowers the risk of a stroke à aids in toning up the muscles à keeps the gastrointestinal tract healthy à facilitates the growth of desirable micro-organisms which boost immunity à helps digestion and for binding stools combats acidity. Nutrition value à low sodium and iron à high potassium content Other advantages à it is least bio-contaminated à it is affordable à it makes one feel satiated So why not start your way to healthy eating today?

       Prepare an appeal to be presented along roadside regarding protecting environment.
PROTECTING ENVIRONMENT”
“ONE EARTH, ONE LIFE,
WHY THEN LET IT DIE?
NATURE IS A GIFT OF GOD,
LET US PROTECT IT”
                       Dear friends, Mother Nature is crying for help to protect herself from the social evils like, cutting of trees, polluting the rivers, burning of plastics, emission of CO2, depletion of ozone layer, global warming etc. In order to highlight the problems and to make people aware, the social service organisation “PRITHVI” is going to conduct a two days program.
·         Day One: Former President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, will give a speech regarding
                                                    i.      How to save our environment?
                                                    ii.      How to reduce the level of CO2?
                                                    iii.      Use of solar energy.
·         Day Two: Famous Cricketer, Sachin Tendulkar shall plant the first sapling of “ONE CRORE TREE PLANTATION” program.
                       So, friends come one and come all let us put our hands together and make a promise to save our mother nature.

Write a speech on ''Retirement of a staff member of the school''.
Respected Principal, teachers and my dear students. It is indeed with a heavy heart that we have gathered here to wish our dear Prof. Natrajan a happy and fruitful retired life. We will no longer have the privilege of daily interaction and learning from a source that we have taken for granted. Prof. Natrajan has been teaching in our school for the past 35 years but I have been lucky enough to have been taught by him at least for the past 2 years (std. VIII and IX). My first memory of him was of a stern teacher, who entered the class with the text in the left hand and chalk dust all over his right hand. He made a dreaded subject like mathematics seem easy when he worked out the problems on the blackboard with lightning speed. He made us learn the formulae, theorems and equations so that they remained in our heads. He reduced an  amazing number of chalk sticks to dust on his hands and the toes of his shiny black shoes.
It saddens me that Prof. Natrajan will be retiring from active teaching. We have no words to thank him enough for giving us a strong foundation in Maths. He always told us that no problem is too difficult to solve. We wish him good health, happiness and contentment in his well deserved time of rest and reflection with the satisfaction of job well done.


Write a speech regarding cruelty towards animals.
CRUELTY TOWARDS ANIMALS
Respected Principal, teachers and friends,
I regret to say that cruelty towards animals has reached alarming levels nowadays. This is clear from the fact how a weak and skinny bull pulls  the cart loaded with tons of weight. The cart owner mercilessly beats it and prods at its thin body with his stick. Similarly, there are numberless deserted animals like cows, dogs, camels and donkeys roaming on the roads. Many of them have open wounds. Some are so diseased that looking at them reveals the ill treatment given to them by the human beings. The bones in their skeletons can easily be counted. Then they are beaten by their owners if they do not move. This indeed is a sorry tale of the indifference of the owners towards these domestic animals. I feel shocked to see how badly these animals are treated. Animal life forms an indistinguishable part of human life.
Animals render inexplicable service to man. But we are so callous towards them that we don’t bother about their welfare. There are hospitals for them. Yet the owners don’t bother to take care of them in times of illness. I urge the authorities to take strict action against the owners who illtreat them. Man is also responsible for killing certain endangered species like whales and polar bears for their meat, skin and fat. People have grown richer by selling the dead bodies of the whales. These are used for making skin creams, cosmetics, bath essence,  detergents, pieces of jewellery, etc. Conservation of such species is very important, or else they would soon be on the brink of extinction. The situation has become so grim that we cannot turn our eyes away. So let us all pledge to save animals from being ill treated.

Write a report on the Independence Day Celebration of your school.
Independence Day Celebrated
Mumbai, August 16 :
This year too, Independence Day was celebrated with the same gusto as ever in St. Joseph’s School. The entire school was illuminated two days before. Chief guest Mr. D.N. Jadhav, the city police commissioner, unfurled the tricolour at 7.30 am. The national anthem was played by the school band while everyone stood respectfully in attention. Raghav Gupta, a Class IX student was felicitated by the Principal as he had won the gold medal representing the school at the State level for chess. A group of Class X recited a patriotic poem “Mera Bharat”. Class VIII presented a short play based on the 1857 revolution which impressed everyone. Headboy Saurav Mehta spoke on all the great leaders of India, who had played an important role in the struggle to drive the British out of India. The Principal addressed the Class X students who would soon be going out into the world. He exhorted them to cherish the democratic ideals which the school had inculcated in them. Sweets and light snacks were distributed to everyone. The gathering dispersed after the playing of Vande Materam with patriotism and positive energy in their hearts.
By Student Reporter.

Prepare 10 questions to interview a 14-year-old boy who won the Bravery Award.
(Ram Kumar, a fourteen year boy from the Vasai Taluka, was recently felicitated with a bravery award for his courageous act of saving an old neighbor from being brutally murdered by some thieves. The following is an excerpt of an interview of Ram Kumar.)
Well, congratulations on receiving the award. Will you please answer a few questions?
1 What was your reaction when you got the news about the award?
2 Did you expect this kind of recognition for your act?
3 Please throw some light on the incident.
4 How many thieves were there?
5 Did they have any weapons?
6 Did you scream for help?
7 How did you handle so many of them that too without any weapons?
8 Were you hurt in the process?
9 Who reported the matter to the police?
10 It is said that this generation is very selfish but you have proved it wrong. Any message for the youth of today.
Thank you Ram. Wish you a lot of success and hope you become a ray of inspiration to the people of the country.

Write an interview that you conducted with the famous cricketer MS Dhoni. Frame ten questions.
(1)   Congrats on being awarded the Padma Shri. How does it  feel to get this honour at such a young age?
(2)   How do you feel about the two boxers who brought glory to India at the Olympics not being included in the government’s honours list?
(3)   You are the first cricketer to represent Jharkhand in the national team. Do you feel any additional responsibility?
(4)   What are your plans to encourage and develop talent in the state?
(5)   How has Gary Kirsten helped as a coach?
(6)   You are leading a very young team. What does leading such a young team involve?
(7)   Do you miss the services of players like Dravid and Ganguly?
(8)   What aspects of the game need improvement, both as an individual and as a team?
(9)   Many critics say you are just riding on a lucky streak and the team still doesn’t have any consistency. What do you feel?
(10)Any messages for your fans?


1.        Read the tabular data showing the causes of road accidents in India and write a paragraph mentioning the chief points.
Sr. No.
Causes
Percentage
1
Drivers’ fault (not following traffic rule, overtaking, speeding, etc. )
83.5%
2
Passengers/Pedestrian fault (not following traffic rule, not walking on foot path, etc. )
4.7%
3
Mechanical defect in vehicle
4.0%
4
Absence of reflectors
2.0%
5
Other factors (bad, roads, potholes, broken dividers, etc)
6.8%

Total
100.0%
2.       Read the following tree diagram that give information about the judiciary system in India and prepare a short note.
3.       You have conducted a survey of wage earners in your locality. Given below is a graphical representation of your findings. The ‘X’ axis represents the wages earned in Rs. And the ‘Y’ axis represents the number of wage earners. The blocks are shaded differently to show children, women and men. The legend for each is given below the graph. Write a paragraph explaining your findings:
4.       Write a paragraph comparing and contrasting the enrolment of girls and boys in a school from 1998 to 2002. You may use the following words or phrases.
Number of enrolments, always, more than, except, exceeded, steady rise, fell, remained the same, rose again, etc.
Year
Girls
Boys
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
5000
5200
5100
5100
5325
4911
5099
5067
5190
5205

Tree Diagram
1.       A Tissue may be defined as a group of cells having some shape, size, origin, function and the same type of development. Tissues are basically classified into two groups namely, meristematic tissues, and  permanent tissues. Meristematic tissues are divided into two, these are position based and origin based. Permanent tissues are further divided into two groups. They are simple tissues and complex tissues. On their basis of their position in the plant body meristematic tissues are classified as aplicle – intercalary, and lateral. On the basis of origin, meristematic tissues are divided into 3 groups; they are Pro – meristem, Primary – meristem and secondary – meristem. Simple tissues are classified into 3 groups, namely parenchyma, collechyma, sclerenchyma, The two complex tissues are found in vascular plant. They are xylem and phloem.
2.       Read the following extract and make a note of it with the help of the data provided. The latest national sample survey organisation (NSSO) report reveals that Urban India spent only 43% of its total consumption expenditure on food items in 2004 – 2005. That is a major drop from 64% in 972 – 73. And the trend holds for the rural India too. The share of food in total expenditure in rural areas has fallen from 73% in 1974 – 75 to 55% in 2004 – 05. In both rural and urban India, ruel and light took up 10% of total consumer expenditure, while clothing bedding and food weal took up 5% Medical expenses formed 7% of the total expenditure in rural India and 5% in Urban India. Rural India spent less on education at 3% of consumption expenditure than urban India 5%. Conveyance took away 7% expenditure in Urban India and 4% in rural India.
3.       Draw a tree diagram
The United nation is a body of nations who have voluntarily joint together to work for the world peace. All nationals are equal in UN. The international labour organisation (ILO) is one of the specialised agencies of the NO. It aims at improving working conditions of workers through the combined efforts of Government, employers and labours. The Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) is another specialised agencies of UN. It works to help countries to increase the quality and improve the quality of their food from farming and fishing. It gives advice on the improvement of soil, forest, crops and on nutrition. The World Health Organisation (WHO) seeks to improve the physical as well as mental health of every one all over the world. It helps to improve the sanitation and water supply; it also helps in training doctors and health workers. The United Nations education scientific and cultural organisation (UNESCO) is another specialised agency of the UN. It works for peace, seeks to fight illiteracy and encouraged exchange of ideas.
4.       Read the following extract and make a note in the suitable form.
A great deal of computer communication takes place over telephone lines. Telephones send and receive analog signals. Computer in contrast, receives digital signals. So, to convert the digital signals to analog signals and vice versa, there is a need of modem. There are four basic types of modems. External, internal, PC card and wireless. The external modem stands apart from the computer and typically is connected by a cable to the computers serial port.
the internal modem, consists of a plug – in circuit board inside the system unit. The PC card modem is a credit card size expansion board that is inserted into a portable computer. A wireless modem may be internal, external or a PC card. Unlike other modems, it does not use cables, instead wireless modem work through the air.

  • Present Tense Sentences
·      Simple
·      Continuous
·      Perfect
·      Perfect Continuous
1. Simple Present Tense Sentences
[3rd Person + Present tense + Singular → Verb + s]
1.       I go to college.
2.       I read a lesson.
3.       I eat an apple.
4.       Raja sings a song.
5.       Sun rises in the east.
6.       Sun sets in the west.
7.       They jump.
8.       He opens the door.
9.       You run away.
10.    He runs away.
11.    He walks to the garden.

2. Present Continuous Tense Sentences

is → singular
am → I
are → plural
  1. I am speaking.
  2. Raju is eating.
  3. You are sleeping.
  4. They are watching T.V.
  5. We are playing foot ball.
3. Present Perfect Tense Sentences.
  1. I have cut my nose.
  2. I have given money.
  3. I have a house
  4. We have brought.
  5. He has sent it.
  6. She has sunk.
  7. It has broken.
  8. They have taken.
4. Present Perfect continuous Tense Sentences.
  1. I have been giving money.
  2. I have been listening music.
  3. She has been reading.
  4. He has been running.
  5. They have been watching movie.
  • Past Tense Sentences
·      Simple
·      Continuous
·      Perfect
·      Perfect Continuous

1. Simple Past Tense Sentences
  1. I went to college.
  2. I read a lesson.
  3. I ate an apple.
  4. Raja sang a song.
  5. I studied the lesson.
  6. He opened the door.
  7. You run away.
  8. Dog barked.
  9. I saw a book.
  10. He came from school.
  11. He said to Raja.
  12. I received a message.
  13. Raja danced beautifully.
  14. They worked hard.
  15. You caught.
2. Past Continuous Tense Sentences.
  1. I was speaking
  2. Raju was sending.
  3. You were teaching.
  4. They were coming.
  5. We were dancing.
  6. He was thinking.
3. Past Perfect Tense Sentences.

1.       The sun had set.
2.       The show had begun.
3.       I had cut my hair.

4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense sentences.
  1. I had been eating.
  2. I had been listening.
  3. She had been running.
  4. They had been reading.
  5. You had been jumping.

  • Future Tense Sentences
·      Simple
·      Continuous
·      Perfect
·      Perfect Continuous

1. Simple Future Tense Sentences.

  1. I shall go to college.
  2. I shall study tomorrow.
  3. We shall come.
  4. You will run.
  5. He will open.
  6. She will sing.
  7. We shall eat.
  8. It will come.
  9. Raju will sing.
  10. Raja sill come.

2. Future Continuous Tense Sentences.

  1. He will be eating.
  2. I shall be going.
  3. They will be dancing.
  4. They will be going.
  5. Raja will be acting.
  6. We shall be singing.
  7. Rose will be winning the race.

3. Future Perfect Tense Sentences.

  1. I shall have eaten tomorrow.
  2. I shall have written my exercise.
  3. They will have broken the car.
  4. We will have known.
  5. We shall have gone tomorrow.

4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense Sentences.

  1. I shall have been eating.
  2. Raju will have been reading.
  3. Raja will have been studying.
  4. They will have been writing.
  5. Raja will have been doing.




I. Use able to / unable to

Can = Present Tense
Could = Past Tense

1. I can play. (Use able to)
Ans. I am able to play.

2. I could play (Use able to)
Ans. I was able to play.

3. He could tell me. (Use able to)
Ans. He was able to tell me.

4. They could tell me. (Use able to)
Ans. They were able to tell me.

5. She can work. (Use able to)
Ans. She is able to work.

6. I can write a letter.
Ans. I am able to write a letter.

7. She could eat a mango.
Ans. She was able to eat a mango.

8. She could not eat sandwich.
Ans. She was unable to eat sandwich.

9. I cannot dance.
Ans. I am unable to dance.

10. I cannot write an essay.
Ans. I am unable to write an essay.


II. Remove too

too → very, excessively, extremely
too ……to…… → so …… that ……cannot/ could not
Present tense, is, am, are → cannot.
Past tense, was, were → could not.

1. It is too hot outside.
Ans. It is very hot outside.

2. These books are too expensive.
Ans. These books are very expensive.

3. Raja is too fond of sweets.
Ans. Raja is extremely fond of sweets.

4. It is too sour.
Ans. IT is very sour.

5. The king was too infallible (perfect) to make a mistake.
Ans. The king was so infallible that he could not make a mistake.  

6. I am too tired to think of anything.
Ans. I am so tired that I cannot think of anything.

7. He spoke too fast to be understood.
Ans. He spoke so fast that one could not understand.

8. He is too proud to beg.
Ans. He is so proud that he cannot beg.

9. Hitler was too cruel to spare the Jews.
Ans. Hitler was so cruel that he could not spare the Jews.

10. The Chief Minister Mr. Raja was too busy to give us an appointment.
Ans. The Chief Minister Mr. Raja was so busy that he could not give us an appointment.

11. Parents now days are too busy to pay attention to their children education.
Ans. Parents now days are so busy that they cannot pay attention to their children education.

12. It became too dark to read easily.
Ans. It became so dark that one could not read easily.

13. I too won a ticket to go to cinema.
Ans. I also won a ticket to go to cinema.

14. He too got it right.
Ans. He also got it right.

III. Make sentences using the given words as noun as well as verbs.

Noun = Name of place, animal, things.
Verbs = Action.

  1. Hand
  2. Can
  3. Lock
  4. Cook
  5. Work
  6. Visit
  7. Name
  8. Right
  9. Hold
  10. Return
  11. Offer
  12. Look
  13. Shop
  14. Produce
  15. Form
  16. Try
  17. lead

·         Hand me the towel. (verb)
·         Aishwarya’s hand is beautiful. (noun)
·         You can do this. (verb)
·         The can is full of water. (Noun)
·         Lock the door, before you leave. (verb)
·         Key is with the lock. (noun)
·         My mother cooks food. (verb)
·         He is a popular cook. (noun)
·         He works in call centre. (verb)
·         I have lot of work to do. (noun)
·         He visits to the zoo. (verb)
·         He earned good name. (Noun)
·         I name this cat. (verb)
·         Right the correct one. (verb)
·         Take right. (noun)
·         Hold the pen. (verb)
·         I didn’t have any hold. (noun)
·         I return the book. (verb)
·         I have no return. (noun)
·         The companies offer discount. (verb)
·         It is a good offer. (noun)
·         I am looking you. (verb)
·         Your look is beautiful. (noun)
·         Raja shops vegetables. (verb)
·         He opened the shop. (noun)
·         Raghavan produced a film. (verb)
·         The farmers store their produce. (noun)
·          Ambani formed a company. (verb)
·         I am unable to fill the form. (noun)
·         I tried a lot. (verb)
·         He gave it a last try. (noun)
·         He leads me in the race. (verb)
·         Lead is a metal. (noun)

1.       I decided to take a calligraphy class. (Use noun form of the underlined word and rewrite)
Ans. I took a decision to take a calligraphy class.
2.       My doctor advised me to go home. (Use noun form of the underlined word and rewrite)
Ans. My  doctor’s advice for me was to go home.
3.       At that moment my spirit revolted. (Use noun form of the underlined word and rewrite)
Ans. At that moment there was a revolution in my spirit. 

IV. Opposites with Prefixed and suffixes.

  1. able x unable (prefix)
  2. complete x incomplete
  3. proper x improper
  4. guide x misguide
  5. regular x irregular
  6. ordinary x extraordinary
  7. social x anti – social
  8. legal x illegal
  9. encourage x discourage
  10. interior x exterior
  11. agree x disagree
  12. careful x careless (suffix)
  13. fearful x fearless
  14. appear x disappear
  15. direct x indirect
  16. perfect x imperfect
  17. septic x antiseptic
  18. ability x inability
  19. useful x useless
  20. important x unimportant
  21. call x miscall
  22. national x international
  23. correct x incorrect
  24. pure x impure
  25. obey x disobey
  26. understand x misunderstand
  27. literate x illiterate
  28. war x antiwar
  29. clear x unclear
  30. willing  x unwilling
  31. pleasant x unpleasant
  32. romantic x unromantic
  33. developed x undeveloped
  34. equal x unequal
  35. definite x indefinite
  36. aware x unaware
  37. respect x disrespect
  38. patient  x impatient
  39. responsible x irresponsible
  40. lock x unlock
  41. cyclone x anti – cyclone
  42. like x dislike
  43. continue x discontinue
  44. restless x restful
  45. justice x injustice
  46. experienced x inexperienced
  47. valuable x valueless
  48. successful x unsuccessful
  49. necessary x unnecessary
  50. maximum x minimum
  51. powerful x powerless
  52. sensitive x insensitive
  53. vegetarian x non vegetarian
  54. reserved x unreserved
  55. kind x unkind
  56. friendly x unfriendly
  57. advantage x disadvantage
  58. connect x disconnect
  59. give x receive
  60. normal x abnormal

V. Affirmative and negative sentences

1. I like to go to the seashore. (Make it negative.)
Ans. I don’t dislike going to the seashore.

2. He likes to go to the seashore.
Ans. He don’t dislike going to the seashore.

3. They like to go to the seashore.
Ans. They don’t dislike going to the seashore.

4. It is useless.
Ans. It is not useful.

5. There is little hurry.
Ans. There is no hurry.

6. He had only his daughter with him.
Ans. He had no one except his daughter with him.

7. I do not remember. (Make it affirmative)
Ans. I fail to remember.

8. I did not remember.
Ans. I failed to remember.

9. She does not remember.
Ans. She fails to remember.

10. It was never heard of in the history of Mumbai.
Ans. This was the first time in the history of Mumbai that it had been heard of.

11. David grew up considering blindness no tragedy.
Ans. David grew up without ever considering blindness a tragedy.

12. They had always fallen into the realm of possibility.
Ans. They had never fallen into the realm of impossibility.

13. David’s ambition to become a doctor was not in that realm.
Ans. David’s ambition to become a doctor was beyond that realm.

14. He was no different from anyone else.
Ans. He was like everyone else

15. You’ll never know unless you try.”
Ans. You’ll only know if you try.

16. It’s likely no personal computer would have them.
Ans. It’s likely all personal computer would be without them.

17. You are fortunate and yet you cannot understand your fortune. (remove negative)
Ans. You are fortunate and yet you are unable to understand your fortune.

18. Abyss cannot head the song of the stars. (Remove negative and rewrite)
Ans. Abyss is unable to hear the song of the stars.

19. His replies did not gladden our heart at the time.
Ans. His replies failed to gladden our hearts at the time.

20. It didn’t halve our time exactly.
Ans. It failed to halve our time.

VI. Question Tag.

1. I am in mood.
Ans. I am in mood, aren’t I?

2. Let’s go for picnic.
Ans. Let’s go for picnic, shall we?

3. Let us go for cinema.
Ans. Let us go for cinema, shall we?

4. They always come in time.
Ans. They always come in time, don’t they?

5. We sit here every day.
Ans. We sit here every day, don’t we?

6. Vijay comes here right at 5.
Ans. Vijay comes here right at 5, doesn’t he?

7. They reached here yesterday.
Ans. They reached here yesterday, didn’t they?

8. That girl got the prize.
Ans. That girl got the prize, didn’t she?

9. I am not tired.
Ans. I am not tired, am I?

10. He does not attend the school.
Ans. He does not attend the school, does he?

11. Ranji never mixes with her classmates.
Ans. Ranji never mixes with her classmates, does she?

12. You should not blame him.
Ans. You should not blame him, should you?

13. I shall go to school.
Ans. I shall go to school, shan’t I?

14. We are not telling the truth.
Ans. We are not telling the truth, are we?

15. He will go to school.
Ans. He will go to school, won’t he?

16. Bring me food.
Ans. Bring me food, will you?

17. Show me your pen.
Ans. Show me your pen, will you?

18. Stay there.
Ans. Stay there, will you?

19. Open the door.
Ans. Open the door, will you?

20. Both he and David grinned.
Ans. Both he and David grinned, didn’t they?

21. You’ll never know unless your try.
Ans. You’ll never know unless you try, will you?

22. Allow me to be a rose for one day.
Ans. Allow me to be a rose for one day, won’t you?

23. At that moment my spirit revolted.
Ans. At that moment my spirit revolted, didn’t it?

24. There has been no sign of improvement in the patient.
Ans. There has been no sign of improvement in the patient, has there?

VII. Exclamatory and Assertive Sentences.
1. What a wonderful story it was! (make it assertive)
Ans. It was a wonderful story.

2. How naughty you are!
 Ans. You are very naughty.

3. How sweet!
Ans. It is really very sweet.

4. He was very slow. (Make it exclamatory)
Ans. How slow he was!

5. It was a very lovely painting.
Ans. What a lovely painting it was!

6. How lucky I was!
Ans. I was very lucky.

7. What a lesson to be learned from Wilma!
Ans. It was indeed a great lesson to be learned from Wilma.

8. He was an extraordinary human being.
Ans. What an extraordinary human being he was!

9. I am quite tired.
Ans. How tired I am!

10. I am very proud of my nice mother.
Ans. How proud I am of my nice mother!

11. You are absolutely right.
Ans. How right you are!

12. How painful it is.
Ans. It is very painful.

VII. HOMOPHONES
Homophones are those words which sounds similar buy have meaning and spelling different.
4.       There , their
5.       Fair, fare
6.       Knew, new
7.       Wright, right
8.       Sum, some
9.       Whether, weather
10.    Principle, principal
11.    Piece, peace
12.    Birth, berth
13.    Hole, whole
14.    Pray, prey
15.    Sea, see
16.    Be, bee
17.    Where, were
18.    Hear, ear
19.    Our, hour
20.    Are, or

VIII. Degree of comparison.
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
Sweet
Small
Tall
Bold
Clever
Kind
Young
Brave
Fine
Happy
Great
Easy
Wealthy
Hot
Thin
Sad
Fat
Beautiful
Eminent
Industrious
Ferocious
Difficult
Good
Well
Bad
Little
Much
Many
In
Up
Old
Old
Sweeter
Smaller
Taller
Bolder
Cleverer
Kinder
Younger
Braver
Finer
Happier
Greater
Easier
Wealthier
Hotter
Thinner
Sadder
Fatter
More beautiful
More eminent
More industrious
More ferocious
More difficult
Better
Better
Worse
Lesser
More
More
Inner
Upper
Elder
Older
Sweetest
Smallest
Tallest
Boldest
Cleverest
Kindest
Youngest
Bravest
Finest
Happiest
Greatest
Easiest
Wealthiest
Hottest
Thinnest
Saddest
Fattest
Most beautiful
Most eminent
Most industrious
Most ferocious
Most difficult
Best
Best
Worst
Least
Most
Most
Innermost
Uppermost
Eldest
oldest

Positive
Comparative
Superlative
No other
than any other
the happiest
Few other/ very few
than many / most other
one of the tallest

1. Raji is the richest woman in Mumbai.
Ans. Raji is richer than any other woman in Mumbai.
No other woman in Mumbai is as rich as Raji.

2. Swami Raja was one of the most eminent disciple of ustad Amjat Ali Khan. 
Ans. Very few disciples of ustad Amjat Ali Khan were as eminent as swami Raja.
Swami Raja was more eminent than many other disciples of ustad Amjat Ali Khan.

3. Reading is the best form of recreation.
Ans. Reading is better than any other form of recreation.
No other form of recreation is as good as reading.

4. Australia is the largest Island.
Ans. Australia is larger than many other Islands.
No other Island is as large as Australia.

5. Australia is one of the largest Islands.
Ans. Australia is larger than many other Islands.
Very few Islands are as large as Australia.

6. Books are the best source of knowledge.
Ans. Books are better than any other source of knowledge.
No other source of knowledge is as good as books.

7. Iron is stronger than many other metals.
Ans. Iron is one of the strongest metals.
Very few metals are as strong as Iron.

8. No one is as lazy as Raja.
Ans. Raja is lazier than any other.
Raja is the laziest of all.

9. It was Dave’s sister, Barbara, who steeled herself to be his toughest taskmaster.
Ans. No other taskmaster of Dave was as tough as his sister Barbara who steeled herself to be so.

10. He had proved the most important thing.
Ans. He had proved the thing which was more important than any other thing.

11. This was the closest I have been to facing death.
Ans. I have never been as close to facing death as this.

12. I could have overlooked Greed whose Nature is higher than mine.
Ans. My nature is not as high as that of Greed whom I could have overlooked.

13. My heart longed for a position higher than my limited existence.
Ans. My limited existence did not have a position as high as the one my heart longed for.

14. I’d spend more time paying for a bar of soap than I would have if I was buying half the store.
Ans. I would not have taken as much time buying half he store as I would spend paying for a bar of soap.

15. The greatest lessons in life are learnt from children.
Ans. No other lessons in life is as great as the ones that are learnt from children.

16. I have never seen such a ferocious animal as this.
Ans. I have never seen an animal more ferocious than this one.

Note: - Whenever the comparison is made between two persons or things there does not exist with superlative degree.

1. Raja is sweeter than Raji.
Ans. Raji is not as sweet as Raja.

2. Mumbai is not leaner than Chennai.
Ans. Chennai is as clean as Mumbai.

3. March is not as hot as June.
Ans. June is hotter than March.

4. The rose smells as sweet as the lily.
Ans. The lily does not smell sweeter than the rose.

5. The rose smelled as sweet as the lily.
Ans. The lily did not smell sweeter than the rose.

6. The roses smell as sweet as the lilies.
The lilies do not smell sweeter than the rose.

7. I feel as scared as you do.
Ans. I don’t feel less scared than you.

IX. Change the voice.
1. I love
Ans. I am loved.

2. I warn.
Ans. I am warned.

3. He calls.
Ans. He is called.

4. She permits.
Ans. She is permitted.

5. They call.
Ans. They are called.

6. I write.
Ans. I am written.

7. We help.
Ans. We are helped.

8. They ask.
Ans. They are asked.

9. Raja loves Raji.
Ans. Raji is loved by Raja.

10. Earth loves us.
Ans. We are loved by Earth.

11. Mom loves me.
Ans. I am loved by Mom.

12. The cat kills the rat.
Ans. The rat is killed by the cat.

13. The cat kill the rats.
Ans. The rats are killed by the cat.

14. The cats kill the rat.
Ans. The rat is killed by the cats.

15. I write a letter.
Ans. A letter is written by me.

16. I write those letters.
Ans. Those letters are written by me.

17. He broke the glass.
Ans. The glass was broken by him.

18. He breaks the glass.
Ans. The glass is broken by him.

19. The C.M. received the P.M.
Ans. The P.M. was received by the C.M.

20. The peon delivered the letters.
Ans. The letters were delivered by the peon.

21. I closed the door.
Ans. The door was closed by me.

22. Raji wrote a letter.
Ans. A letter was written by Raji.

23. He will finish the work.
Ans. The work will be finished by him.

24. He will finish the work.
Ans. The work will be finished by him.

25. People will forget it.
Ans. It will be forgotten by people.

26. I shall invite you.
Ans. You will be invited by me.

27. The police will catch me.
Ans. I shall be caught by the police.

28. They will send me.
Ans. I shall be sent by them.

29. They have eaten the fruits.
Ans. The fruits have been eaten by them.

30. They have opened the window.
Ans. The window has been opened by me.

31. He has driven those cars.
Ans. Those cars have been driven by him.

32. I had written a letter.
Ans. A letter had been written by me.

33. She had painted a picture.
Ans. A picture had been painted by her.

34. He had cut those trees.
Ans. Those trees had been cut by him.

35. The teacher had taught the lesson.
Ans. The lesson had been taught by the teacher.

36. The teacher had taught the lessons.
Ans. The lessons had been taught by the teacher.

37. The teacher will have taught the lesson.
Ans. The lesson will have been taught by the teacher.

38. Vijay will have finished the task.
Ans. The task will have been finished by Vijay.

39. My friend will have bought a gift.
Ans. A gift will have been bought a gift.

40. I shall have written a letter.
Ans. A letter will have been written by me.

41. I am watching you.
Ans. You are being watched by me.
42. The Raman is building the wall.
Ans. The wall is being built by the Raman.

43. The teacher is teaching a new lesson.
Ans. A new lesson is being taught by the teacher.

44. My mother is cutting an apple.
Ans. Apples are being cut by my mother.

45. My mother is cutting apples.
Ans. Apples are being cut by my mother.

47. The gardener was cutting grass.
Ans. Grass was being cut by the gardener.

48. The rain had divided Mumbai into two.
Ans. Mumbai had been divided into two by the rain.

49. He was elected vice – president of the student council.
Ans. They elected him the vice – president of the student council.

50.  He was seized with feeling of inadequacy.
Ans. Feeling of inadequacy seized him.

51. We feel renewed faith in the infinite possibilities of all people. (Begin the sentence with “Renewed faith………”).
Ans. Renewed faith in the infinite possibilities of all people is felt by us.

52. We were designing the first Macintosh computer. (Rewrite the sentence beginning with “The first ……”)
Ans. The firs Macintosh computer was being designed by us.

53. I was diagnosed with cancer. (Change the voice)
Ans. They diagnosed me with cancer.

54. On the back cover they put a photograph of an early morning country road. (Begin with, “A photograph …… and rewrite)
Ans. A photograph of an early morning country road was put on the back cover by them.

55. Nature had bestowed upon you fragrance and beauty. (begin the sentence with “Fragrance ……)
Ans. Fragrance and beauty have been bestowed upon you by nature.

56. Cast aside your thoughts. (Change the voice)
Ans. Let your thoughts be cast aside.

57.  You are consoling me.
Ans. I am being consoled by you.

58. He who humbles himself will be exalted.
Ans. It will exalt him who humbles himself.

59. I have never feared the tempest.
Ans. The tempest has never been feared by me.

60. We were told to fold it neatly.
Ans. He told us to fold it neatly.

61. Father taught us a simple lesson
Ans. A simple lesson was taught to us by father.

X. Modal Auxiliary
1. ‘used to’ is used to express a discontinued habit in the past
2. ‘could’ is used for showing possibility
3. ‘shall’ is used for request, intention, promise, permission
4. ‘will’ is used for warning, order, instruction
5. ‘must/have to’ is used for compulsion, obligation
6. ‘need’ is used for necessity
7. ‘should’ is used for advice.
8. ‘can’ is used for ability, possibility,
9. ‘might – may -- will

1.       You have to trust that dots will somehow connect in you future. (Use Modal auxiliary showing necessity)
Ans. You need to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future.
2.       He who exalts himself will be crushed. (Make the sentence less definite)
Ans. He who exalts himself may be crushed.
3.       I am happy now.  (use modal auxiliary showing Obligation)
Ans. I must happy now.
4.       You should leave your newspaper the way you expect to find it. (use a modal auxiliary showing “obligation”)
Ans. You must leave your newspaper the way you expect to find it.
5.       The streets would be full of children, rushing headlong into the rain. (use a modal auxiliary showing “obligation”)
Ans. The streets must be full of children, rushing headlong into the rain.
6.       A skillful advertiser may be able to create a monopoly. (Rewrite the sentence using a modal auxiliary ‘can’)
Ans. A skillful advertiser can create a monopoly.

XI. Figure of Speech

1.       Personification – human quality
2.       Alliteration – repetition of same alphabet
3.       Repetition – repetition of same word
4.       Tautology – same meaning
5.       Antithesis – opposite words
6.       Hyperbole – over statement
7.       Interrogation – questions
8.       Exclamation – expression
9.       Inversion – jumble words
10.    Onomatopoeia – sound

XII. Wh type questions.

1.       We lived downstairs of the hospital.
Ans. Where did we live?

2.       He announced that he was going to be a doctor.
Ans. What did he announce?

3.       I lived with that diagnosis all day.
Ans. How did I live all day?

4.       Nature heard the conversation.
Ans. What did Nature hear?

5.       The queen of violets saw by her side ­the converted violet.
Ans. Whom did the queen of violets see by her side?

6.       The morning routine started with tea.
Ans. How did the morning routine start?

7.       I didn’t mind vegetable shopping.
Ans. What did I not mind?

8.       The final indicator of a country’s independence is the way its children live.
Ans. What is the final indicator of a country’s independence?

9.       He launched an independent partnership.
Ans. What did he launch?

10.    The rain water rises the water table in the sand.
Ans. What does the rain water rise in the sand?

11.    The monsoon starts in June.
Ans. When does the monsoon start?

12.    We reached America.
Ans. Where did we reach?

13.    Dimple breaks the glass.
Ans. Who does break the glass?

14.    20 billion messages are sent every month worldwide.
Ans. How many messages are sent every month worldwide?

XIII. Direct and indirect speech.
1.       The doctor said, “I have given an injection and it will make you sleep.”
Ans. The doctor said that he had given an injection and it would make him sleep.
2.       “Who are you and what are you doing here?” she asked him. “I am a painter and I’m drawing pictures on my pitcher,” he said.
Ans. She asked him who he was and what he was doing there. He answered that he was a painter and was drawing pictures on his pitcher.
3.       “Something is burning,” said the man. “Can you smell it, Vinay?” (Change it into indirect speech)
Ans. The man said that something was burning. He asked Vinay whether he could smell it.
4.       She’d said, “What do you think – that somebody’s always going to be around to wait on you?
Ans. She asked him whether he thought that somebody would always be around to wait on him.
5.       He announced that he was going to be a doctor.
Ans. He announced, “I am going to be a doctor.”
6.       “Why not settle for something more, within your capabilities, like History or Psychology?” suggested the biology professor.
Ans. The biology professor suggested him that he should settle for something more within his capabilities like History or Psychology.
7.       “Dave”, said the other senior, gripping his shoulder, “I can see like an eagle.”
Ans. Gripping his shoulder, the other senior told Dave that he could see like an eagle.
8.       The violet opened her blue lips and said, “What an unfortunate am I among the flowers!”
Ans. The violet opened her blue lips and exclaimed that she was unfortunate among the flowers. 
9.       She laughed and commented. “How strange is your talk!”
Ans. She laughed and commented that her talk was very strange.
10.    She approached and said, “Has greed entered your heart and humbled your senses”
Ans. She approached and asked whether greed had entered her heart and had humbled her senses.
11.    The queen of violets called to her family, saying, “Let the memory of this scene be a reminder of your good fortune.”
Ans. The queen of violets called to her family to say that the memory of that scene should be a reminder of their good fortune.
12.    He would give a reply, “We do not need a house of our own. I already own five houses.”
Ans. He would reply that they did not need a house of their own and added that he already owned five houses.
13.    I tried arguing, “But what difference does it make?”
Ans. I tried to argue saying that it did not make any difference.
14.    “Is it dead?” asked Neha. “No,” said Rahul. “ I can still feel its heart beating.”
Ans. Neha asked whether it was dead. Rahul replied in the negative. He added that he could still fell its heart beating.
15.    Gandhiji said that the greatest lessons in life are learnt from children.
Ans. Gandhiji said, “The greatest lessons in life are learnt from children”.
16.  “Brush your teeth and gargle with a mouthwash after every mean.” Said the dentist to Seema. “I will make it my habit,” said Seema.
XIV. Gerund and infinitive
1.       The sky poured turbulent waters on Mumbai to transform lanes and streets into rivers.
(Rewrite using gerund form of the underlined word)
Ans. The sky poured turbulent waters on Mumbai, transforming  lanes and streets into rivers.
2.       Nature granted my request and changed me into a rose. (Use infinitive and rewrite)
Ans. Nature granted my request to change me into a rose.
3.       Making omelettes and rolling out chappatis became my special duties.
Ans. To make omelettes and to roll out chappatis became my special duties.
4.       I got caught each time I tried arguing.
Ans. I got caught each time I tried to argue.
5.       Besides, in India there are always other people to do al that for you.
Ans. Besides, in India there are always other people doing all that for you.
6.       Finally, we tried to combine forces.
Ans. Finally, we tried combining forces.
7.       Looking for groceries was another matter.
Ans. To look for groceries was another matter.
8.       My parents preferred to patronize just on store.
Ans. My parents preferred patronizing just one store.
9.       Public may take some time to apprehend that it is being cheated.
Ans. Public may take some time apprehending that it is being cheated.
XV. Rewrite using unless/ but for / if …… not, as required.
1.       You will never know unless you try. (Rewrite using ‘if ..... not’)
Ans.  If you do not try, you will never know.
2.       I would never have been what I am today, if my uncle hadn’t helped me.
Ans. But for my uncle’s help, I would never have been that I am today.
3.       But for his parent’s Ravi would have give up.
Ans. If it wasn’t for Ravi’s parents, Ravi would have given up.
4.       Unless you have the hall ticket, you won’t be allowed to appear for the exam.
Ans. If you do not have the hall ticket, you won’t be allowed to appear for the exam.
5.       You need a driving license to drive on the highway.
Ans. Unless you have a driving license, you cannot drive on the highway.
6.       Don’t take these medicines unless the doctor advises.
Ans. Don’t take these medicines, if the doctor does not advise.
7.       If you don’t know about electric current, don’t touch it.
Ans. Unless you know about electric current, don’t touch it.
8.       If you don’t pass your SSC exam, you cannot get admission in any junior colleges.
Ans. Unless you pass your SSC exam, you cannot get admission to Junior Colleges.
9.       If the government hadn’t helped, the farmers would have lost their crops.
Ans. But for the help of the government, the farmers would have lost their crops.
10.    But for my teachers, I would never have scored this much.
Ans. If it wasn’t for my teachers, I would never have scored this much.
11.    Do you have a proper training? Only then you can go for mountaineering in the Himalayas.
Ans. Unless you have proper training, you cannot go for mountaineering in the Himalayas.

XVI. Identify the tense
1.       They had not been frank enough with Dave.
Ans. Past perfect tense.
2.       The four Hartmans were lingering at the dinner table.
Ans. Past continuous (progressive) tense.
3.       It all came back to me. (Rewrite using Past perfect Tense)
Ans. It had all come back to me.
4.       There was an amazing publication. (Use Past perfect tense and rewrite)
Ans. There had been an amazing publication.
5.       You are consoling me. (Use present perfect continuous tense)
Ans. You have been consoling me.
6.       Contentment has acted as a barrier. (Make Present Perfect Continuous tense)
Ans. Contentment has been acting as a barrier.
7.       Multani Mitti takes its name from a place in Pakistan.
(Rewrite using Present Perfect Tense)
Ans. Multani Mitti has taken its name from a place in Pakistan.

XVII. Make it simple, compound & complex.

Complex Sentences: (because, when, while, where, as, before, after, that, since, as soon as, no sooner, if, unless, as .... though, if .... though, though, even though, although, whether, so .... that, till, only if, so that, until, which,)

Compound Sentence: (and, but, or, not only ...... but also, either ..... or, neither ..... nor,  etc )

1.       These eloquent words brought in a standing ovation for David. (make it complex)
Ans. These eloquent words are the ones which brought in a standing ovation for David.
2.       After reading the newspaper aloud, we were told to fold it neatly. (rewrite using a compound sentence form)
Ans. We read the newspaper aloud and then we were told to fold it neatly.
3.       Sensing my resentment, my mother tried not to force this particular “duty” on me.(Make it a complex sentence)
Ans. My mother tried not to force this particular “duty” as she sensed my resentment.
4.       Sensing my resentment, my mother tried not to force this particular “duty” on me.(Make it a compound sentence)
Ans. My mother sensed my resentment and tried not to force this particular duty on me.
5.       I know my sisters hated it equally, but someone had to do it. (Make it a complex sentence)
Ans. Though I knew my sister hated it equally, someone had to do it.
6.       It was some simpler words from the past that Dave voiced. (Make it simple sentence)
Ans. Dave voiced some simpler words from the past.
7.       You have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in you future. (Make it compound)
Ans. The dots will somehow connect in your future and you have to trust them.
8.       This approach had never let me down and it has made all the difference in my life.
Ans. This approach, without ever letting me down, has made all the difference in my life.
9.       My doctor advised me o go home and get my affairs in order. (Make it a simple sentence)
Ans. My doctor advised me to go home for getting my affairs in order.
10.    It was their farewell message as they signed off. (Make it simple)
Ans. While signing off, it was their farewell message.
11.    I live very close to earth and I cannot raise my head towards the sky. (Make it simple)
Ans. Living very close to earth Ii cannot raise my head towards the blue sky.
12.    I live very close to earth and I cannot raise my head towards the sky. (Make it complex)
Ans. Since I live very close to earth, I cannot raise my head towards the blue sky.
13.    You are fortunate and yet you cannot understand your fortune. (Make it complex)
Ans. Though you are fortunate, you cannot understand your fortune.
14.    The queen of violets lifted her head and called to her family. (make it simple)
Ans. Lifting her head the queen of violets called to her family.
15.    The reality is that our children are very intelligent. (make it compound)
Ans. Our children are very intelligent and that is the reality.
16.    As adults, fearing failure, we give up before we try. (make it compound)
Ans. As adults we fear failure and give up before we try.

XVIII. Rhetorical type questions.

1.       Your time is limited. (frame a Rhetorical questions)
Ans. Isn’t Your time limited?
2.       You have been humble and sweet in all your deeds.
Ans. Haven’t you been humble and sweet in all your deeds?
3.       Ambition beyond existence is the essential purpose of our being.
Ans. Isn’t ambition beyond existence the essential purpose of our being?
4.       Today, the rains fall on empty streets.
Ans. Today, don’t the rains fall on empty streets?
5.       They aren’t free from social conditioning.
Ans. Are they free from social conditioning?
6.       We became part of a larger reality.
And. Didn’t we become a part of a larger reality?
7.       Imagination is everything.
Ans. Isn’t imagination everything?
8.       It’s not strange that my children refuse to believe that their grandfather and laughter were ever strangers?
Ans. Is strange that my children refuse to believe that their grandfather and laughter were even strangers?
9.       A child is inherently curious about the world.
Ans. Isn’t child inherently curious about the world?
10.    This pre-drawn massacre is a regular feature.
Ans. Isn’t this pre – drawn massacre a regular feature.
11.    Happiness can’t be bought with cash?
Ans. Can happiness be bought with cash?
12.    This is an extreme case of intellectual subversion.
Ans. Isn’t this extreme case of intellectual subversion.

XIX. Not only But also
1.       Nature had fashioned me to be short and poor.
Ans. Nature has fashioned me to be not only short but also poor.
2.       The distances shrunk, the geographical boundaries disappeared.
Ans. Not only did the distances shrink but also the geographical boundaries disappeared.
3.       This is the design of life. This is the secret of Existence.
Ans. This is not only the design of Life but also the secret of Existence.
4.       You are contented and meek dullards.
Ans. You are not only contented but also meek dullards.
5.       Business begins and ends with that simple precept.
Ans. Business not only begins but also ends with that simple precept.
6.       I loved the old Dhobi Talao market and was on first – name terms with the vendors.
Ans. Not only did I love the old Dhobi Talao market but I also was on first  name terms with the vendors.

XX. No sooner …… than
1.       As I hearkened to the silence of the night, I heard the heavenly world talking.
Ans. No sooner did I hearken to the silence of the night than I heard the heavenly world talking.
2.       I’ve tried getting you into the kitchen to help me cook on special occasions and seen the faces you’ve pulled.
Ans. No sooner have I tried getting you into the kitchen to help me cook on special occasions than I have seen the faces you’ve pulled.
3.       As soon as I reached the class, the students remained silent.
Ans. No sooner did I reach the class than the student remained silent.
4.       As soon as the monsoon starts, the farmers become happy.
Ans. No sooner does the monsoon starts than the farmers become happy.
5.       Gazing at the magnificent bird, Carter grew convinced.
Ans. No sooner did Carter gaze at the magnificent bird than he grew convinced.
6.       She fell down in one place when fellow pedestrian rushed instantly for her help.
Ans. No sooner did she fall down in one place than fellow pedestrian rushed instantly for her help.

7.       Most morning my wife enters the kitchen to find the scurrying away.
Ans. Most morning no sooner does my wife enter the kitchen than she find them scurrying away.

8.       To avoid spoilage a 4000 litre milk chilling plant was set up.
Ans. No sooner was a 4000 litre milks chilling plant set up than avoid spoilage.

9.       As soon as the leaf fell from the trees the wind swept it away?
Ans. No sooner did the leaf fall from the tree than the wind swept it away.

10.    As soon as the teacher entered the class, the students wished him good morning?
Ans. No sooner did the teacher enter the class than the student wished him good morning.

XXI. Used to & would

1.       I would spend hours under it.
Ans. I used to spend hours under it.
2.       My father used to get transferred every year.
Ans. My father would get transferred every year.
3.       My mother would set up an establishment.
Ans. My mother used to set up an establishment.
4.       Our day used to start with the family huddling around my mother’s chulha.
Abs. Our day would start with the family huddling around my mother’s chulha.
5.       He would give a reply.
Ans. He used to give a reply.
6.       She would take her kitchen utensils and she and I would dig the rocky, white ant infested surroundings.
Ans. She used totake her kitchen utensils and she and I used to dig the rocky, white ant infested surroundings.
7.       She would cook for the family.
Ans. She used to cook for the family.

Complex Sentences: (because, when, while, where, as, before, after, that, since, as soon as, no sooner, if, unless, as .... though, if .... though, though, even though, although, whether, so .... that, till, only if, so that, until, which, ………)

Compound Sentence: (and, but, or, not only ...... but also, either ..... or, neither ..... nor,  etc )

Present tense
Past tense
Past participle
Arise
Arose
Arisen
Buy
Bought
Bought
Be
Was/were
Been
Beat
Beat
Beaten
Become
Became
Become
Begin
Began
Begun
Bend
Bent
Bent
Bet
Bet
Bet
Bite
Bit
Bitten
Blow
Blew
Blown
Break
Broke
Broken
Bring
Brought
Brought
Broadcast
Broadcast
Broadcast
Build
Built
Built
Burn
Burnt
Burnt
Catch
Caught
Caught
Choose
Chose
Chosen
Come
Came
Come
Creep
Crept
Crept
Cut
Cut
Cut
Deal
Dealt
Dealt
Dig
Dug
Dug
Do
Did
Done
Draw
Drew
Drawn
Drink
Drank
Drunk
Drive
Drove
Driven
Eat
Ate
Eaten
Fall
Fell
Fallen
Feed
Fed
Fed
Feel
Felt
Felt
Fight
Fought
Fought
Find
Found
Found
Flee
Fled
Fled
Fly
Flew
Flown
Forbid
Forbade
Forbidden
Forget
Forgot
Forgotten
Forgive
Forgave
Forgiven
Freeze
Froze
Frozen
Get
Got
Got
Give
Gave
Given
Go
Went
Gone
Grow
Grew
Grown
Hang
Hung
Hung
Hear
Heard
Heard
Hide
Hid
Hidden
Hit
Hit
Hit
Hold
Held
Held
Hurt
Hurt
Hurt
Keep
Kept
Kept
Know
Knew
Known
Lay
Laid
Laid
Lead
Led
Led
Leave
Left
Left
Lend
Lent
Lent
Let
Let
Let
Lie
Lay
Lain
Light
Lit
Lit
Lose
Lost
Lost
Make
Made
Made
Mean
Meant
Meant
Meet
Met
Met
Pay
Paid
Paid
Put
Put
Put
Read
Read
Read
Ride
Rode
Ridden
Rise
Rose
Risen
Run
Ran
Run
Say
Said
Said
See
Saw
Seen
Seek
Sought
Sought
Send
Sent
Sent
Set
Set
Set
Sew
Sewed
Sewed
Shake
Shook
Shaken
Shine
Shone
Shone
Shoot
Shot
Shot
Show
Showed
Showed
Shrink
Shrank
Shrunk
Shut
Shut
Shut
Sing
Sang
Sung
Sink
Sank
Sunk
Sit
Sat
Sat
Sleep
Slept
Slept
Side
Slid
Slid
Speak
Spoke
Spoken
Spend
Spent
Spent
Spit
Spat
Spat
Spread
Spread
Spread
Spring
Sprang
Sprung
Stand
Stood
Stood
Steal
Stole
Stolen
Stick
Stuck
Stuck
Sting
Stung
Stung
Stink
Stung
Stung
Strike
Struck
Struck
Sweat
Swore
Sworn
Sweep
Swept
Swept
Swim
Swam
Swum
Take
Took
Taken
Teach
Taught
Taught
Tear
Tore
Torn
Tell
Told
Told
Think
Thought
Thought
Throw
Threw
Thrown
Understand
Understood
Understood
Wake
Woke
Woken
Wear
Wore
Worn
Weep
Wept
Wept
Win
Won
Won
Write
Wrote
written

DO AS DIRECTED
1.       Most children remain  in school between the ages of six and sixteen. (use suitable preposition)
2.       The main drawback of the area is its distance to the railway. (use suitable preposition)
3.       He sailed across the sea and landed on the shore.
4.       He saw star shooting down towards the earth. (Insert appropriate articles wherever necessary and rewrite the sentence)
5.       These new trees brought back the insects. (Rewrite beginning with “The insects……”)
6.       Carter had hoped. (Add a question tag.)
7.       Bird - watchers gathered to count the increasing number of native birds. (rewrite using ‘and’)
8.       …… Yamuna is …… tributary of the Ganges. (Rewrite using the appropriate articles.)
9.       Most children remain ……… school ……… between the ages of six and sixteen.
(rewrite using the appropriate prepositions)
10.    The doctor said, “I have given an injection and it will make you sleep.”
(Change it into indirect speech)
11.    It is the biggest review of planer’s life support systems.
(Rewrite using comparative degree)
12.    More ominously, the assessment team warns that the ability of Earth’s ecosystem to sustain future generation can no longer be taken for granted. (rewrite using the noun form of the underlined word)
13.    That’s enough evidence for experts to warn of the likelihood of potentially abrupt changes which could seriously affect human well being. (Rewrite the sentence removing which)
14.    What is the best way ­to do it?
(Rewrite using the ‘gerund’ form of the underlined infinitive)
15.    The Taj will be washed clean with salt free water.
(Use modal auxiliary showing ‘obligation’)
16.    Insert the appropriate articles wherever necessary and rewrite the sentence. He saw star shooting down towards Earth.
17.    “Who are your and what are you doing here?” she asked him. “I am a painter and I’m drawing pictures on my pitcher,” he said. (change it into indirect speech)
18.    We would try to gauge father’s mood from the movement of his eyes. (Use ‘used to’)
19.    I am grateful to him. (add a question tag)
20.  He exudes a quiet smile of satisfaction. (Use present Perfect continuous tense)

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