English Grammar For Board Exam

  • Present Tense Sentences
·      Simple
·      Continuous
·      Perfect
·      Perfect Continuous

1. Simple Present Tense Sentences
[3rd Person + Present tense + Singular → Verb + s]
1.       I go to college.
2.       I read a lesson.
3.       I eat an apple.
4.       Raja sings a song.
5.       Sun rises in the east.
6.       Sun sets in the west.
7.       They jump.
8.       He opens the door.
9.       You run away.
10.    He runs away.
11.    He walks to the garden.

2. Present Continuous Tense Sentences

is → singular
am → I
are → plural

  1. I am speaking.
  2. Raju is eating.
  3. You are sleeping.
  4. They are watching T.V.
  5. We are playing food ball.

3. Present Perfect Tense Sentences.

  1. I have cut my nose.
  2. I have given money.
  3. I have a house
  4. We have brought.
  5. He has sent it.
  6. She has sunk.
  7. It has broken.
  8. They have taken.

4. Present Perfect continuous Tense Sentences.

  1. I have been giving money.
  2. I have been listening music.
  3. She has been reading.
  4. He has been running.
  5. They have been watching movie.

  • Past Tense Sentences
·      Simple
·      Continuous
·      Perfect
·      Perfect Continuous

1. Simple Past Tense Sentences

  1. I went to college.
  2. I read a lesson.
  3. I ate an apple.
  4. Raja sang a song.
  5. I studied the lesson.
  6. He opened the door.
  7. You run away.
  8. Dog barked.
  9. I saw a book.
  10. He came from school.
  11. He said to Raja.
  12. I received a message.
  13. Raja danced beautifully.
  14. They worked hard.
  15. You caught.

2. Past Continuous Tense Sentences.

  1. I was speaking
  2. Raju was sending.
  3. You were teaching.
  4. They were coming.
  5. We were dancing.
  6. He was thinking.

3. Past Perfect Tense Sentences.

1.       The sun had set.
2.       The show had begun.
3.       I had cut my hair.

4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense sentences.

  1. I had been eating.
  2. I had been listening.
  3. She had been running.
  4. They had been reading.
  5. You had been jumping.

  • Future Tense Sentences
·      Simple
·      Continuous
·      Perfect
·      Perfect Continuous

1. Simple Future Tense Sentences.

  1. I shall go to college.
  2. I shall study tomorrow.
  3. We shall come.
  4. You will run.
  5. He will open.
  6. She will sing.
  7. We shall eat.
  8. It will come.
  9. Raju will sing.
  10. Raja sill come.

2. Future Continuous Tense Sentences.

  1. He will be eating.
  2. I shall be going.
  3. They will be dancing.
  4. They will be going.
  5. Raja will be acting.
  6. We shall be singing.
  7. Rose will be winning the race.

3. Future Perfect Tense Sentences.

  1. I shall have eaten tomorrow.
  2. I shall have written my exercise.
  3. They will have broken the car.
  4. We will have known.
  5. We shall have gone tomorrow.

4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense Sentences.

  1. I shall have been eating.
  2. Raju will have been reading.
  3. Raja will have been studying.
  4. They will have been writing.
  5. Raja will have been doing.

I. Use able to / unable to

Can = Present Tense
Could = Past Tense

1. I can play. (Use able to)
Ans. I am able to play.

2. I could play (Use able to)
Ans. I was able to play.

3. He could tell me. (Use able to)
Ans. He was able to tell me.

4. They could tell me. (Use able to)
Ans. They were able to tell me.

5. She can work. (Use able to)
Ans. She is able to work.

6. I can write a letter.
Ans. I am able to write a letter.

7. She could eat a mango.
Ans. She was able to eat a mango.

8. She could not eat sandwich.
Ans. She was unable to eat sandwich.

9. I cannot dance.
Ans. I am unable to dance.

10. I cannot write an essay.
Ans. I am unable to write an essay.

II. Remove too

too very, excessively, extremely
too ……to…… so …… that ……cannot/ could not
Present tense, is, am, are cannot.
Past tense, was, were could not.

1. It is too hot outside.
Ans. It is very hot outside.

2. These books are too expensive.
Ans. These books are very expensive.

3. Raja is too fond of sweets.
Ans. Raja is extremely fond of sweets.

4. It is too sour.
Ans. IT is very sour.

5. The king was too infallible (perfect) to make a mistake.
Ans. The king was so infallible to make a mistake.

6. I am too tired to think of anything.
Ans. I am so tired that I cannot think of anything.

7. He spoke too fast to be understood.
Ans. He spoke so fast that one could not understand.

8. He is too proud to beg.
Ans. He is so proud that he cannot beg.

9. Hitler was too cruel to spare the Jews.
Ans. Hitler was so cruel that he could not spare the Jews.

10. The Chief Minister Mr. Raja was too busy to give us an appointment.
Ans. The Chief Minister Mr. Raja was so busy that he could not give us an appointment.

11. Parents now days are too busy to pay attention to their children education.
Ans. Parents now days are so busy that they cannot pay attention to their children education.

12. It became too dark to read easily.
Ans. It became so dark that one could not read easily.

13. I too won a ticket to go to cinema.
Ans. I also won a ticket to go to cinema.

14. He too got it right.
Ans. He also got it right.

III. Make sentences using the given words as noun as well as verbs.

Noun = Name of place, animal, things.
Verbs = Action.

  1. Hand
  2. Can
  3. Lock
  4. Cook
  5. Work
  6. Visit
  7. Name
  8. Right
  9. Hold
  10. Return
  11. Offer
  12. Look
  13. Shop
  14. Produce
  15. Form
  16. Try
  17. lead

·         Hand me the towel. (verb)
·         Aishwarya’s hand is beautiful. (noun)
·         You can do this. (verb)
·         The can is full of water. (Noun)
·         Lock the door, before you leave. (verb)
·         Key is with the lock. (noun)
·         My mother cooks food. (verb)
·         He is a popular cook. (noun)
·         He works in call centre. (verb)
·         I have lot of work to do. (noun)
·         He visits to the zoo. (verb)
·         He earned good name. (Noun)
·         I name this cat. (verb)
·         Right the correct one. (verb)
·         Take right. (noun)
·         Hold the pen. (verb)
·         I didn’t have any hold. (noun)
·         I return the book. (verb)
·         I have no return. (noun)
·         The companies offer discount. (verb)
·         It is a good offer. (noun)
·         I am looking you. (verb)
·         Your look is beautiful. (noun)
·         Raja shops vegetables. (verb)
·         He opened the shop. (noun)
·         Ragavan produced a film. (verb)
·         The farmers store their produce. (noun)
·          Ambani formed a company. (verb)
·         I am unable to fill the form. (noun)
·         I tried a lot. (verb)
·         He gave it a last try. (noun)
·         He leads me in the race. (verb)
·         Lead is a metal. (noun)

IV. Opposites with Prefixed and suffixes.

  1. able x unable (prefix)
  2. complete x incomplete
  3. proper x improper
  4. guide x misguide
  5. regular x irregular
  6. ordinary x extraordinary
  7. social x anti – social
  8. legal x illegal
  9. encourage x discourage
  10. interior x exterior
  11. agree x disagree
  12. careful x careless (suffix)
  13. fearful x fearless
  14. appear x disappear
  15. direct x indirect
  16. perfect x imperfect
  17. septic x antiseptic
  18. ability x inability
  19. useful x useless
  20. important x unimportant
  21. call x miscall
  22. national x international
  23. correct x incorrect
  24. pure x impure
  25. obey x disobey
  26. understand x misunderstand
  27. literate x illiterate
  28. war x antiwar
  29. clear x unclear
  30. willing  x unwilling
  31. pleasant x unpleasant
  32. romantic x unromantic
  33. developed x undeveloped
  34. equal x unequal
  35. definite x indefinite
  36. aware x unaware
  37. respect x disrespect
  38. patient  x impatient
  39. responsible x irresponsible
  40. lock x unlock
  41. cyclone x anti – cyclone
  42. like x dislike
  43. continue x discontinue
  44. restless x restful
  45. justice x injustice
  46. experienced x inexperienced
  47. valuable x valueless
  48. successful x unsuccessful
  49. necessary x unnecessary
  50. maximum x minimum
  51. powerful x powerless
  52. sensitive x insensitive
  53. vegetarian x non vegetarian
  54. reserved x unreserved
  55. kind x unkind
  56. friendly x unfriendly
  57. advantage x disadvantage
  58. connect x disconnect
  59. give x receive
  60. normal x abnormal

V. Affirmative and negative sentences

1. I like to go to the seashore. (Make it negative.)
Ans. I don’t dislike going to the seashore.

2. He likes to go to the seashore.
Ans. He don’t dislike going to the seashore.

3. They like to go to the seashore.
Ans. They don’t dislike going to the seashore.

4. It is useless.
Ans. It is not useful.

5. There is little hurry.
Ans. There is no hurry.

6. He had only his daughter with him.
Ans. He had no one except his daughter with him.

7. I do not remember. (Make it affirmative)
Ans. I fail to remember.

8. I did not remember.
Ans. I failed to remember.

9. She does not remember.
Ans. She fails to remember.

VI. Question Tag.

1. I am in mood.
Ans. I am in mood, aren’t I?

2. Let’s go for picnic.
Ans. Let’s go for picnic, shall we?

3. Let us go for cinema.
Ans. Let us go for cinema, shall we?

4. They always come in time.
Ans. They always come in time, don’t they?

5. We sit here every day.
Ans. We sit here every day, don’t we?

6. Vijay comes here right at 5.
Ans. Vijay comes here right at 5, doesn’t he?

7. They reached here yesterday.
Ans. They reached here yesterday, didn’t they?

8. That girl got the prize.
Ans. That girl got the prize, didn’t she?

9. I am not tired.
Ans. I am not tired, am I?

10. He does not attend the school.
Ans. He does not attend the school, does he?

11. Ranji never mixes with her classmates.
Ans. Ranji never mixes with her classmates, does she?

12. You should not blame him.
Ans. You should not blame him, should you?

13. I shall go to school.
Ans. I shall go to school, shan’t I?

14. We are not telling the truth.
Ans. We are not telling the truth, are we?

15. He will go to school.
Ans. He will go to school, won’t he?

16. Bring me food.
Ans. Bring me food, will you?

17. Show me your pen.
Ans. Show me your pen, will you?

18. Stay there.
Ans. Stay there, will you?

19. Open the door.
Ans. Open the door, will you?
VII. Exclamatory and Assertive Sentences.
1. What a wonderful story it was! (make it assertive)
Ans. It was a wonderful story.

2. How naughty you are!
 Ans. You are very naughty.

3. How sweet!
Ans. It is really very sweet.

4. He was very slow. (Make it exclamatory)
Ans. How slow he was!

5. It was a very lovely painting.
Ans. What a lovely painting it was!

6. How lucky I was!
Ans. I was very lucky.

7. What a lesson to be learned from Wilma!
Ans. It was indeed a great lesson to be learned from Wilma.

8. He was an extraordinary human being.
Ans. What an extraordinary human being he was!

9. I am quite tired.
Ans. How tired I am!

10. I am very proud of my nice mother.
Ans. How proud I am of my nice mother!

11. You are absolutely right.
Ans. How right you are!

Homophones are those words which sounds similar buy have meaning and spelling different.
1.       There , their
2.       Fair, fare
3.       Knew, new
4.       Wright, right
5.       Sum, some
6.       Whether, weather
7.       Principle, principal
8.       Piece, peace
9.       Birth, berth
10.    Hole, whole
11.    Pray, prey
12.    Sea, see
13.    Be, bee
14.    Where, were
15.    Hear, ear
16.    Our, hour
17.    Are, or

VIII. Degree of comparison.
More beautiful
More eminent
More industrious
More ferocious
More difficult
Most beautiful
Most eminent
Most industrious
Most ferocious
Most difficult

No other
than any other
the happiest
Few other/ very few
than many / most other
one of the tallest

1. Raji is the richest woman in Mumbai.
Ans. Raji is richer than any other woman in Mumbai.
No other woman in Mumbai is as rich as Raji.

2. Swami Raja was one of the most eminent disciple of ustad Amjat Ali Khan. 
Ans. Very few disciples of ustad Amjat Ali Khan were as eminent as swami Raja.
Swami Raja was more eminent than many other disciples of ustad Amjat Ali Khan.

3. Reading is the best form of recreation.
Ans. Reading is better than any other form of recreation.
No other form of recreation is as good as reading.

4. Australia is the largest Island.
Ans. Australia is larger than many other Islands.
No other Island is as large as Australia.

5. Australia is one of the largest Islands.
Ans. Australia is larger than many other Islands.
Very few Islands are as large as Australia.

6. Books are the best source of knowledge.
Ans. Books are better than any other source of knowledge.
No other source of knowledge is as good as books.

7. Iron is stronger than many other metals.
Ans. Iron is one of the strongest metals.
Very few metals are as strong as Iron.

8. No one is as lazy as Raja.
Ans. Raja is lazier than any other.
Raja is the laziest of all.

Note: - Whenever the comparison is made between two persons or things there does not exist with superlative degree.

1. Raja is sweeter than Raji.
Ans. Raji is not as sweet as Raja.

2. Mumbai is not leaner than Chennai.
Ans. Chennai is as clean as Mumbai.

3. March is not as hot as June.
Ans. June is hotter than March.

4. The rose smells as sweet as the lily.
Ans. The lily does not smell sweeter than the rose.

5. The rose smelled as sweet as the lily.
Ans. The lily did not smell sweeter than the rose.

6. The roses smell as sweet as the lilies.
The lilies do not smell sweeter than the rose.

IX. Change the voice.
1. I love
Ans. I am loved.

2. I warn.
Ans. I am warned.

3. He calls.
Ans. He is called.

4. She permits.
Ans. She is permitted.

5. They call.
Ans. They are called.

6. I write.
Ans. I am written.

7. We help.
Ans. We are helped.

8. They ask.
Ans. They are asked.

9. Raja loves Raji.
Ans. Raji is loved by Raja.

10. Vijay loves us.
Ans. We are loved by Vijay.

11. Surya loves me.
Ans. I am loved by Surya.

12. The cat kills the rat.
Ans. The rat is killed by the cat.

13. The cats kill the rat.
Ans. The rats are killed by the cat.

14. The cats kill the rat.
Ans. The rat is killed by the cats.

15. I write a letter.
Ans. A letter is written by me.

16. I write those letters.
Ans. Those letters are written by me.

17. He broke the glass.
Ans. The glass was broken by him.

18. He breaks the glass.
Ans. The glass is broken by him.

19. The C.M. received the P.M.
Ans. The P.M. was received by the C.M.

20. The peon delivered the letters.
Ans. The letters were delivered by the peon.

21. I closed the door.
Ans. The door was closed by me.

22. Raji wrote a letter.
Ans. A letter was written by Raji.

23. He will finish the work.
Ans. The work will be finished by him.

24. He will finish the work.
Ans. The work will be finished by him.

25. People will forget it.
Ans. It will be forgotten by people.

26. I shall invite you.
Ans. You will be invited by me.

27. The police will catch me.
Ans. I shall be caught by the police.

28. They will send me.
Ans. I shall be sent by them.

29. They have eaten the fruits.
Ans. The fruits have been eaten by them.

30. They have opened the window.
Ans. The window has been opened by me.

31. He has driven those cars.
Ans. Those cars have been driven by him.

32. I had written a letter.
Ans. A letter had been written by me.

33. She had painted a picture.
Ans. A picture had been painted by her.

34. He had cut those trees.
Ans. Those trees had been cut by him.

35. The teacher had taught the lesson.
Ans. The lesson had been taught by the teacher.

36. The teacher had taught the lessons.
Ans. The lessons had been taught by the teacher.

37. The teacher will have taught the lesson.
Ans. The lesson will have been taught by the teacher.

38. Vijay will have finished the task.
Ans. The task will have been finished by Vijay.

39. My friend will have bought a gift.
Ans. A gift will have been bought a gift.

40. I shall have written a letter.
Ans. A letter will have been written by me.

41. I am watching you.
Ans. You are being watched by me.
42. The Raman is building the wall.
Ans. The wall is being built by the Raman.

43. The teacher is teaching a new lesson.
Ans. A new lesson is being taught by the teacher.

44. My mother is cutting an apple.
Ans. Apples are being cut by my mother.

45. My mother is cutting apples.
Ans. Apples are being cut by my mother.

47. The gardener was cutting grass.
Ans. Grass was being cut by the gardener.

X. Model Auxiliary
1. ‘used to’ is used to express a discontinued habit
2. ‘could’ is used for showing possibility
3. ‘shall’ is used for request, intention, promise, permission
4. ‘will’ is used for warning, order, instruction
5. ‘must’ is used for compulsion, obligation

XI. Figure of Speech

1.       Personification – human quality
2.       Alliteration – repetition of same alphabet
3.       Repetition – repetition of same word
4.       Tautology – same meaning
5.       Antithesis – opposite words
6.       Hyperbole – over statement
7.       Interrogation – questions
8.       Exclamation – expression
9.       Inversion – jumble words
10.    Onomatopoeia – sound