Amazing world of carbon compounds

Ch. 9. Amazing world of carbon compounds

Q1. Fill in the blanks.
1.     The organic compounds having double or triple bond in them are termed as _______(unsaturated)
2.     The general formula of alkanes is _____________. )
3.     _____________ are known as parent organic compounds. (hydrocarbons)
4.     Covalent compounds are generally soluble in ____________ solvents. (organic)
5.     Triple bond can be obtained by sharing ____________ pairs or ________ electrons. (three, shared)
6.     Hydrocarbons necessarily contain _____________ and ______________. (hydrogen, carbon)
Q2. Give the IUPAC name of the following compounds.
1.      
Ans.
2.    
Ans.
Q3. Write short notes on
1.     Catenation
Ans.
i.                 The remarkable property of carbon atom to form bonds with itself and give rise to a single structure of chain is called catenation.
ii.               Such carbon chains can be straight or branched forming large molecules.
iii.              The two ends of some chains join together to form closed ring – like structures.
iv.              While catenating, the bonds between carbon atoms can be single, double or triple covalent bonds.



2.     Functional group
Ans.
i.                 The atoms or group of atoms present in the molecule which determines characteristic property of organic compounds are called the functional group.
ii.               Halides (F, Cl, Br, I) aldehyde (- CHO), Hydroxyl ( - OH), Carboxyl (- COOH), etc., are some of the functional groups.
iii.              The chemical properties of different compounds having the same functional groups are different.
iv.              There exists a homologous series of one particular type of functional group, e.g., alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, etc.

3.     Homologous series.
Ans.
i.                 A group of organic compounds containing same functional group which can be represented by the same general formula and which have similar trends in their properties are called a homologous series.
ii.               In the general formula of compounds of a homologous series, the symbol R is used to represent its functional group.
iii.              Alcohols (R – OH), Aldehydes (R – CHO), Carboxylic acid (R – COOH), Ketones(R-C(=O)-R') are some of homologous series and their general formulae.
iv.              The alkanes family is a homologous family which have linear molecules. Examples: Ethane C2H6, Propane C3H8, Butane C4H10, Pentane C5H12.

Q4. Differentiate between: Detergents and soaps
Detergents
Soaps
i.                 Detergents are generally ammonium or sulphonate salts of long chain carboxylic acids.
ii.               Detergents have a strong cleansing action.
iii.              Oils or fats are not used in their manufacture, usually petrochemicals are used to produce detergents.
iv.              They function well in hard or soft water.
i.                 Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long chain carboxylic acids.
ii.               Soaps have relatively weak cleansing action.
iii.              Vegetable oils or animal fats are used along with hydroxide of sodium or potassium to manufacture soaps.
iv.              They do not work well in had water but work well in soft water.


Q5. Answer the following.
1.     Draw chain and ring structures of organic compound having six carbon atoms in them.
Ans. a) chain structure –
b) Ring structure: -
2.     Which organic compounds are named as Alkanol in IUPAC system?
Ans. In IUPAC method, alcohols are named as AlKanol. In naming the alcholols by IUPAC method the last ‘e’ of the parent alkane is replaced by ‘ol’ to indicate the presence of OH group.


3.     Explain: What do you understand by substitution reaction?
Ans.
i.                 Reaction where substitution of one or more atoms in a molecule for another atom takes place are called substitution reactions. Saturated hydrocarbons undergo substitution reaction.
ii.               In Substitution reaction one or more hydrogen atom of a hydrocarbon are replaced by some other atom (like chlorine)
iii.              Ex: Substitution reaction of methane with chlorine.
Methane reacts with chlorine in the presence of sunlight to form methyl chloride and hydrogen chloride.

4.     Which organic compounds readily undergo addition reactions? Why?
Ans. Unsaturated hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions, that is addition reactions are given by all the alkenes and alkynes. This is because reactants add to the carbon atoms of  double and  bond to form a single product of saturated hydrocarbon.
For Eg.

5.     State two examples of (organic) compound having covalent bond and two examples having ionic bond.
Ans.
i.                 Hydrocarbons like methane and ethane have covalent bonds.
ii.               In organic compounds line NaCl and KMnO4 have ionic bonds.

6.     State and explain how alkanes are further classified.
Ans. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons with single bonds. Alkanes are further classified as:
i.                 Straight chain alkanes: The alkanes in which all the carbon atoms are attached by covalent bonds in a continuous chain are called straight chain alkanes or normal alkanes Eg. CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – CH3 is normal butane or n – butane.
ii.               Branched chain alkanes: - The alkanes in which all the carbon atoms are not in a continuous chain and some of them are linked to other carbon atoms to make the branch are called branched chain alkanes.
a.     The alkanes, in which there is only one carbon chain attached to the second carbon atom of the long chain are called iso – alkanes Eg.
b.     The alkanes, in which there are two single carbon branches, attached the second carbon atom of the long chain are called neo – alkanes. Eg.
7.     What are alkynes? Name the first member of alkyne family.
Ans. Hydrocarbons containing triple bonds between carbon atoms are alkynes. The first member of alkyne family is ethyne or acetylene
A wonderful image released by Michael Ströck under the GNU Free Documentation License: The structures of eight allotropes of carbon:
a) Diamond b) Graphite c) Lonsdaleite d) C60 (Buckminsterfullerene) e) C540 Fullerene f) C70 Fullerene g) Amorphous carbon h) Single-walled carbon nanotube

4 comments:

Anonymous said...

This is nice and i like it so much

AMIN BUHARI said...

thanks

alex fernandis said...

i like it soooooooo muchhhh

alex fernandis said...

nice

PDF FILE TO YOUR EMAIL IMMEDIATELY PURCHASE NOTES & PAPER SOLUTION. @ Rs. 50/- each (GST extra)

HINDI ENTIRE PAPER SOLUTION

MARATHI PAPER SOLUTION

SSC MATHS I PAPER SOLUTION

SSC MATHS II PAPER SOLUTION

SSC SCIENCE I PAPER SOLUTION

SSC SCIENCE II PAPER SOLUTION

SSC ENGLISH PAPER SOLUTION

SSC & HSC ENGLISH WRITING SKILL

HSC ACCOUNTS NOTES

HSC OCM NOTES

HSC ECONOMICS NOTES

HSC SECRETARIAL PRACTICE NOTES

2019 Board Paper Solution

HSC ENGLISH SET A 2019 21st February, 2019

HSC ENGLISH SET B 2019 21st February, 2019

HSC ENGLISH SET C 2019 21st February, 2019

HSC ENGLISH SET D 2019 21st February, 2019

SECRETARIAL PRACTICE (S.P) 2019 25th February, 2019

HSC XII PHYSICS 2019 25th February, 2019

CHEMISTRY XII HSC SOLUTION 27th, February, 2019

OCM PAPER SOLUTION 2019 27th, February, 2019

HSC MATHS PAPER SOLUTION COMMERCE, 2nd March, 2019

HSC MATHS PAPER SOLUTION SCIENCE 2nd, March, 2019

SSC ENGLISH STD 10 5TH MARCH, 2019.

HSC XII ACCOUNTS 2019 6th March, 2019

HSC XII BIOLOGY 2019 6TH March, 2019

HSC XII ECONOMICS 9Th March 2019

SSC Maths I March 2019 Solution 10th Standard11th, March, 2019

SSC MATHS II MARCH 2019 SOLUTION 10TH STD.13th March, 2019

SSC SCIENCE I MARCH 2019 SOLUTION 10TH STD. 15th March, 2019.

SSC SCIENCE II MARCH 2019 SOLUTION 10TH STD. 18th March, 2019.

SSC SOCIAL SCIENCE I MARCH 2019 SOLUTION20th March, 2019

SSC SOCIAL SCIENCE II MARCH 2019 SOLUTION, 22nd March, 2019

XII CBSE - BOARD - MARCH - 2019 ENGLISH - QP + SOLUTIONS, 2nd March, 2019


BUY FROM PLAY STORE

DOWNLOAD OUR APP


HOW TO PURCHASE OUR NOTES?



S.P. Important Questions For Board Exam 2020


O.C.M. Important Questions for Board Exam. 2020


Economics Important Questions for Board Exam 2020


Chemistry Important Question Bank for board exam 2020


Physics – Section I- Important Question Bank for Maharashtra Board HSC Examination


Physics – Section II – Science- Important Question Bank for Maharashtra Board HSC 2020 Examination


MUST REMEMBER THINGS on the day of Exam


Are you prepared? for English Grammar in Board Exam.


Paper Presentation In Board Exam


How to Score Good Marks in SSC Board Exams


Tips To Score More Than 90% Marks In 12th Board Exam


How to write English exams?


How to prepare for board exam when less time is left


How to memorise what you learn for board exam


No. 1 Simple Hack, you can try out, in preparing for Board Exam

How to Study for CBSE Class 10 Board Exams Subject Wise Tips?

JEE Main 2020 Registration Process – Exam Pattern & Important Dates

NEET UG 2020 Registration Process Exam Pattern & Important Dates

How can One Prepare for two Competitive Exams at the same time?

8 Proven Tips to Handle Anxiety before Exams!