Meaning: -HRM is concerned with managing manpower to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness. HRM consists of various elements such as; human resources planning, recruitment and selection, training, motivation, performance appraisal, career development, promotion and transfer of human resources.

Definition: -“Planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of human resources to the end that individual, organizational and social objectives are accomplished.”                
                                                                                                                                                     Defined by………. (Edwin Flippo)
The various functions of HRM are as follows:

1.       Human Resource Planning: - HRM facilitates human resource planning (HRP). HRP is a process of identifying manpower requirements in terms of quality and quantity, to undertake various activities of the organization. The HRP, the HR manager undertakes;
·         Review of organizational goals.
·         Forecast of human resource requirements.
·         Forecast of human resource supply.
·         Comparison of HR requirements and supply.
·         Corrective action, if there is shortage or surplus of manpower.

2.       Acquisition functions/Selections: -the acquisition functions begin with human resource planning. For acquiring the right type of manpower, the HR manager should undertake necessary arrangements for recruitment and selection of human resources. For instance, systematic procedure needs to be followed to select the right person for the right job.

3.       Placement Function: -the HR manager is also responsible for proper placement of employees in the organization. Placement refers to fitting the right person at the right place of work. Proper placement brings job satisfaction to the employees and results in higher efficiency to the organization.

4.       Performance Appraisal: - The HR manager may be involved in designing and/or undertaking performance appraisal programmes. Performance appraisal is a systematic description of employees’ job relevant strengths and weakness. Systematic performance feedback to the employees helps to correct their weaknesses through training and motivation.

5.       Training and Development: -one of the major activities of HRM is to provide training and development to the employees of the organization. Training and development programs enables the employees to; 1. Acquire additional knowledge.  2.  Develop attitude.  3. Improve skills, and   4. Develop social behavior.

6.       Career Development: - HRM facilitates career development of the employees in the organization. Career development refers to the continuous effort to match long-term individual need with that of the organsation. Career development can take place through assigning challenging tasks

7.       Employees’ Welfare: - HRM is responsible for employees’ welfare. Welfare measures include crèche (nursery school) facilities, holidays with pay, medical insurance, canteen facilities, recreation facilities, rest rooms, transport facilities and so on.

8.       Compensation Function: - Employees must be rewarded and recognized for their performance. HRM is responsible to design proper compensation package to the employees. Appropriate rewards motivate employees to perform effectively.

9.       Labour Relations: - HRM is also concerned with the industrial relations. It includes union-management relations, joint consultations, negotiating, collective bargaining, grievance handling, disciplinary actions, settlements of industrial disputes, etc.

10.    Employees’ Health and Safety: -HRM is concerned with the maintenance function. It involves protecting and promoting health and safety of the employees. For this purpose, the organization may adopt health and safety measures and provide other fringe be such as medical aid. Etc.

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