1.                                             METHODS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT?

Meaning: - Every organization has to introduce systematic training and management development programmes for all its employees on regular basis. This is because trained personnel are extremely important and useful to every organization. They are responsible for the stability and progress of an organization. There are two methods of management development:
          On the job methods                                off the job methods

On the job methods
off the job methods

1.       Coaching and Counseling
1.       Universities and Colleges
2.       Understudy (substitute) assignment
2.       Assessment Centers
3.       Planned Progression
3.       Business games
4.       Job Rotation
4.       Classroom Method
5.       Membership of committees
5.       Conferences
6.       Project assignment
6.       Seminars

A.      Internal Training Methods/on the job methods:

1.       Coaching and Counseling:-

·         Coaching: -On the job coaching is a method by which a superior teaches job knowledge and skills to a subordinate manager. He briefs the trainee executive about what is expected of him and how it can be done. The superior also checks the performance of his subordinates and guides him to improve his shortfalls and deficiencies.

·         Counseling: - Here, the subordinate wanting advice approaches his superior. Counseling is provided in matters relating to the job. However, on request from the subordinates, counseling may also be offered on matters not directly related to the job. Counseling provides emotional stability to trainee subordinate.

2.       Understudy (substitute) assignment: - An understudy is a trainee manager who is to assume the full duties and responsibilities of the position currently held by his superior, when the later leaves his post due to retirement, transfer or promotion. Here, a departmental manager (head) selects one of his suitable subordinates to become his understudy.

3.       Planned Progression: - It is similar to job rotation, except that every movement from one job to another involves higher pay, position and duties. In job rotation, every movement involves more or less same pay and position. Planned progression is more likely to occur at higher managerial levels, whereas, job rotation occurs mainly at lower level positions.

4.       Job Rotation: - Employees are transferred from one job to another. For example; a casher in a bank may be transferred to the account departments. In job rotation, every movement involves more or less same pay and position. Planned progression is more likely to occur at higher managerial levels, whereas, job rotation occurs mainly at lower level positions.

5.       Membership of committees: - Inter-departmental committees are normally created for bringing coordination in the activities of different departments. Mangers from different departments are taken on such committees. Junior managers are also given membership of such committees so as to give them a broader exposure to the viewpoints of other departmental heads.

6.       Project assignment: - In the project assignment method, a trainee manager is given a project that is closely related to the work of his department. The project relates to specific problem faced by the department. Here, the executive has to study the project on his own and make recommendations for the consideration of the departmental head. Such assignment provides valuable experience to the trainee and develops problem-solving attitude.

B.      External Training Methods/off the job methods:

1.       Universities and Colleges: - The universities and colleges now, provide facilities of management education. Mumbai University has its Bajaj Institute of management for various management development courses. Colleges affiliated with Mumbai Universities also conduct DMB, MBA and other management development programmes.

2.       Assessment Centers: - Executives can be trained in assessment centers. The trainees are given a problem or situation to make decisions. For instance, the executives may be asked to make decision relating to launching of a new product in the market. The decisions to be made are in respect of product design, pricing, promotion, distribution, etc. if poor decisions are made, training is given to improve the decision-making abilities of the executives.

3.       Business games: - Executives can be trained with the help of business games. Participants can learn by analyzing problems and by making trial-and-error decisions. Business games help to develop;

·         Communication skills,
·         Problem Solving Skills,
·         Decision Making Skills.

4.       Classroom Method: - Classroom methods for training managerial personnel include lectures, discussion, role playing and case study.

Advantages: -

·         Training can be given to a large group at a time, especially in the case of lecture method.
·         Theoretical concepts can be made clearer.
·         Interaction can take place among executives belonging to various departments and ranks.

5.       Conferences: -It is a large gathering representing various sections or divisions of the organization. At time, the participants may be from different organizations. Experts may present their views on certain topics or latest developments. For instance, a conference can be called to discuss latest implications of new foreign trade policy. Participants can gain insight based on the expert views.

6.       Seminars: - Management employees can be trained with the help of seminars and workshops. In seminars, trainees present their papers on work related developments. The paper presentations are reviewed by experts. The experts may give their insights on the topic presented by the trainee.