360 DEGREE APPRAISALS?
Meaning: -The 360 degree appraisal is a systematic feedback of performance of an individual or a group in an organization by a number of stakeholders or parties. The various parties include superiors, subordinates. Etc.
1. Immediate Superiors: - Generally speaking, employees are evaluated by their immediate superior, since he has the most accurate and direct information on the work performance of the subordinates.
2. Subordinates: - The subordinates could be asked to rate the performance of his superior. For instance, the student may be asked to rate the performance of his teacher.
3. Self-assessment:- There can be self-assessment. The concerned employee may be asked to appraise his performance. The purpose is to help an employee to review and control his own performance and to initiate efforts for self development.
4. Peers: - Peers or colleagues can rate each other’s performance. This is considered useful particularly in work situation where team work matters most. For instance, a police officer can rate his partner who normally accompanies him on duty.
5. Top Management: - Top management normally may rate the senior or middle level executives who directly report them.
6. Clients: - Major clients can also undertake performance appraisal of the employees with whom they interact. The clients are in a better position to give a feedback on the performance of those employees with whom they come into contact during the course of business transaction.
7. Other Parties: -360 Degree Appraisal can also be conducted by other parties such as;
• Appraisal Panel.
• HR Department.
Advantages of 360 Degree Appraisal: -
1. Avoids Bias: - This technique helps to avoid bias in rating. Even if one of the raters wants to be biased in favour or against the ratee, he/she cannot do so; balance the rating is done by several parties.
2. Balanced Performance appraisal: - this method gives balanced performance appraisal of the ratee. All the raters try to be as objective as possible in their rating.
3. Comprehensive Performance appraisal: - This method provides comprehensive appraisal of the ratee. The raters consider a wide range of factors in rating the candidate. The factors include;
• Attitude towards work,
• Quality of work,
• Relationship at work,
• Speed of Work,
• Team Spirit, etc.
4. Personnel Decisions: - This technique facilitates several personnel decisions. Depending upon the ratings given by the raters, the organization can take personnel decisions relating to placement, promotion, transfers, termination, career development, compensation, etc.