Striving For Better Environment Part I and II

Ch. No. 14. Striving for Better Environment Part I
Q1. Write whether the following statements are true or false. If false write the correct statement:
1.       Cigarette smoke is bad for health of not only the smoker but also others.
2.       Almost all urban areas show low levels of air pollution.
False: Almost all urban areas show high levels of air pollution.
3.       Pollens, bacteria, fungal spores are also pollutants.
4.       Ecosystem can get severely disturbed due to natural disasters.
5.       Global warming is the desirable aspect of the intensified green house effect.
False. Global warming is the undesirable aspect of the intensified green house effect.
Q2. Answer the following in one sentence:
1.       Give the definition of a pollutant? Or what are Pollutants?
Ans. Pollutants are the products which affect the normal functioning of ecosystem and have adverse effects on plants, animals and humans.
2.       Name the diseases caused due to water pollution.
Ans. The diseases caused due to water pollution are cholera, typhoid, diarrhea, dysentery, hepatitis, polio and jaundice.
3.       Define water pollution.
Ans. When toxic substances enter into lakes, streams, rivers, oceans and other water bodies, they get dissolved or lie suspended in water or gets deposited on the bed, the quality of water deteriorates and affect aquatic system. This is called water pollution.
4.       What is Radioactive pollution?
Ans. Due to human activity, high energy radioactive particles mix in air, water and soil and pollute it. This is known as radioactive pollution.
5.       Who implement the laws related to pollution?
Ans. The Government of India implements the laws related to pollution.
6.       Name two causes of global warming.
Ans. Greenhouse gases and Ozone depletion.
7.       Name some monuments affected by acid rains.
Ans. Some monuments affected by acid rains are : Tajmahal (India, Mughal Islam), Acropolis of Athens (Greece, Ancient Greek), Longmen Grottoes (China, Buddhist).
Q3. Distinguish between:
1.       Degradable and Non degradable pollutants.
Degradable pollutants
Non degradable pollutants
1.       Degradable pollutants can be decomposed or degraded easily.
2.       Decomposition takes place by microorganisms and it requires less time.
3.       These pollutants again enter the biogeochemical cycles and become part of the natural nutrient cycle.
1.       Non – degradable pollutants cannot be easily decomposed.
2.       It requires more time and different techniques for decomposition.
3.       These pollutants will remain on the earth for years and create environmental pollution.
2.       Primary and Secondary pollutant.
Primary pollutant
Secondary Pollutant
1.       Primary pollutants are the pollutants that are emitted directly from the sources and are found in the atmosphere in the form in which they were emitted.
2.       Examples: Ash, smoke, radioactive compounds, oxides of sulphur etc.
1.       Secondary pollutants are the pollutants that are formed in the atmosphere by chemical reactions between primary pollutants and atmospheric constituents.
2.       Examples: SO3 m O3 , Ketones, Peroxyacetyl nitrate.

Q4. Write short notes on :
1.       Acid rain:
i.                     Acid rain is rain water containing harmful amounts of nitric and sulphuric acids.
ii.                    When fossil fuels such as coal, wood, petroleum are burnt, nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides are released into the atmosphere. These oxides are soluble in water.
iii.                  During rain, these oxides react with large quantities of water vapours of atmosphere to form acids like sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid, nitric acid and nitrous acid. These acids mix with mist, rain water drops or snow and change its composition. The rain or snow that falls to the ground is Acid rain.
2.       Eutrophication:
i.                     The enrichment of water bodies by inorganic plant nutrients like nitrate, phosphate occurring either naturally or due to human activity is Eutrophication.
ii.                    The process of eutrophication takes place due to introduction of nutrients and chemicals through discharge of domestic sewage, industrial effluents and fertilizers from agricultural fields.
iii.                  These promote excessive growth of phytoplankton and algae. When algae die, decomposition of organic substance use oxygen.
iv.                  This results in depletion of oxygen in water. The bloom of algae blocks penetration of oxygen, light and heat into the water body. As a result most of the organisms die below the surface of the water.

3.       Oil spills
i.                     Accidental release of oil into a body of water as from a tanker, off – shore drilling rig or underwater pipeline and wells often present a hazard to marine life and the environment.
ii.                    This oil spills forms a layer on the sea and prevent sunlight penetrating the water, which harms marine life.
Q5. Answer briefly:
1.       What adverse effect does ozone depletion have?
i.                     Stratospheric ozone is being destroyed mainly by chlorine atoms of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) molecules.
ii.                    This has resulted a hole in the ozone layer in the stratosphere near Antartica. This hole allows the ultraviolet rays of the sun to reach the earth directly.
iii.                  These UV rays cause skin cancer, cataract in human beings. Ozone depletion can affect animals and plants as well.

2.       What are the different laws to prevent pollution?
The different laws to prevent pollution are
i.                     Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
ii.                    Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
iii.                  Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

3.       Describe the main sources of water pollution.
Water pollution is caused by several sources both natural and man – made.
i.                     Natural sources:
a.       Due to heavy rains, minerals from land get washed into river and then oceans. This leads to uncontrolled growth of water weeds.
b.       Similarly dead animals, animal waste, ashes and chemicals released due to forest fires, sulphur compounds released after an earthquake get washed into water sources due to rain.
ii.                   Man made sources: Man – made sources such as city sewage and industrial water are the major sources of water pollution.
a.       Domestic sewage: Waste water originating from kitchen, bathrooms, toilet is domestic sewage. Domestic sewage contains wide varieties of dissolved and suspended impurities.
b.       Industrial waste: Waste materials like acids, alkalies, toxic metals, oil, grease, dyes, pesticides and even radioactive material are poured into the water bodies by many industrial units.
c.        Radioactive waste: Radioactive wastes are produced from industrial, medical, atomic power plants and scientific processes that use radioactive materials.
d.       Agricultural Runoffs: Intensive cultivation of crops causes chemicals from fertilizers and pesticides to seep into ground water.
e.        Oil spills: Accidental release of oil into a body of water as from a tanker, off – shore drilling rig or underwater pipeline and wells often present a hazard to marine life and the environment.
f.        Thermal pollution: the thermal power plants and other industries located near the rivers and sea use water for cooling purposes. They release recycled hot water into the water bodies leading to thermal pollution.

4.       How do biodegradable and non biodegradable waste cause land pollution?
i.                     Biodegradable waste are materials such as sewage that can rapidly decomposes by natural process. These pollutants become a problem when added to the environment faster than they can decompose.
ii.                    Since significant amount of urban solid waste is paper and food waste the majority is biodegradable in land fills.
iii.                  Non – biodegradable pollutants are materials that either do not decompose or decompose slowly in the natural environment. Non biodegradable materials like polythene bags, foot wear and plastic remain in soil for long periods.
iv.                  When industrial and urban wastes like chemicals, plastics etc, are dumped on land, they can accumulate and interfere with life processes.

5.       How do you protect soil from being polluted?
i.                     In recent years, excess use of fertilizers and pesticides is a major cause of deteriorating soil quality. So avoiding excess use of chemical fertilizers and enhancing use of organic nutrients is a major step in soil conservation.
ii.                    Bunds are built on the edge of field to check washing of soil. Excess water is drained by maintaining slope in the field to avoid water logging.
iii.                  Crop rotation is practiced to maintain soil quality. For example, legumes are planted between two major crops to increase nitrogen availability.

6.       What major harm is done to the human beings by air pollution?
Air pollution can affect our health in many ways with both short term and long term effects.
i.                     Short term effects include:
a.       Irritation of eyes, nose, mouth and throat.
b.       Respiratory infections such as bronchitis, pneumonia.
c.        Headaches, nausea and allergy.
d.       Asthma attacks
e.        Reduced lung functioning.
ii.                    Short term effects include:
a.       Chronic pulmonary disease
b.       Lung cancer.

7.       Give the impacts of Noise pollution on the human body.
Effects of noise pollution on human beings depend on noise intensity, frequency and exposure duration.
There are three types of effects on man:
i.                     Auditory effects: Auditory fatigue, deafness.
ii.                    Non – auditory effects: Communication interference, sleep interference, concentration interference, ill temper, annoyance, violent behaviour, mental disorientation, bickering and lose of working efficiency.
iii.                  Physiological effects: Nausea, fatigue, anxiety, visual disturbances, insomnia, hypertension, cardio vascular disease.
Q6. Suggest measures in the following situation:
1.       To avoid noise pollution in classroom.
To avoid noise in classroom make small changes in the classroom like.
i.                     Add curtains to the classroom.
ii.                    Use cork bulletin boards to walls.
iii.                  Placing sound absorbant panels on upper walls.
iv.                  Plastic buffer on furnitures can avoid noise caused due to dragging of furnitures. 

2.       Bursting fire crackers in festivals and processions.
i.                     Use ecofriendly carbon free noiseless crackers which do not effect us in any way.
ii.                    Popularise the idea of not using crackers in festivals among public.

3.       The use of fossil fuels in villages.
The following measures helps to reduce the use of fossil fuels:
i.                     Rather than depend on fossil fuels, use energy from renewable (non conventional) sources like solar energy, biogasplant, windmill etc.
ii.                    Different types of engines are being used for various purposes. These engines are constantly consuming the sources of energy such as coal, petroleum etc. To reduce the use of fossil fuels, engines that reduce emissions to a large extent can be built and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) can be used.

4.       To avoid pollution of land when you go on a picnic.
When we go on a picnic take care of the following measures to reduce land pollution.
i.                     Do not spit or urinate in the open space.
ii.                    Put waste food, plastic bags etc. Into the dustbin only.
iii.                  If it is a sea shore or river bank do not put plastic bags and other wastes into water. Instead we can bring back such waste if we cannot locate a dustbin.
iv.                  Use paper bags, tetrapack instead of polythene bags.

5.       The level of air pollution is very high in your locality.
The following measures can reduce air pollution in our locality:
i.                     Plant trees on road sides and develop gardens, parks and open grounds in the locality.
ii.                    A particular place can be provided for garbage collection and ensure that it is discarded daily.
iii.                  Give awareness to the people about the use of non conventional source of energy like solar energy, wind energy etc.

6.       To avoid noise pollution in silent zones.
i.                     Put silent zone sign board on these areas.
ii.                    Loud speakers and public address system cannot be used in silent zone.
iii.                  Honking on the horns to be prohibited.

7.       To minimize electricity consumption at home.
i.                     Switch off the electrical appliances like computer, fan, light, air conditioner. T.V. etc, when not in use.
ii.                    Use of washing machine, grinder should be reduced to twice in a week instead of daily.
iii.                  Use electricity saving devices such as more efficient light bulbs lime CFL and LED tube lights etc.
iv.                  Use Solar Water heater instead of electrical heaters.

Ch. No. 15. Striving For Better Environment Part II
Q1. Answer the following in one sentence:
1.                   Mention one provision on environment given in our constitution.
Directive Principles of state policy. Fundamental Duties and Enforcement by Legislations are the provisions on environment given in our constitution.

2.                   What is the fundamental duty of each citizen regarding environment?
It should be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures.

Q2. Answer the following.
1.       How can we save energy in day to day life?
In day to day life we can save energy by reducing the consumption of fuels. Reduction is possible by efficient usage of energy, wastage elimination and awareness.
This can be achieved by measures like:
i.                     Controlling usage of electricity by using power saver lamps and appliances.
ii.                    Switching off the appliances when not in use.
iii.                  Using public transport instead of private motorized vehicles etc.

2.       What are the reasons for depletion of biological resources?
Biological resources means plants, animals and microorganisms. The reasons for depletion of biological resources are:
i.                     Population explosion: To meet the increasing demands of growing population, there is a pressure on land for agricultural purposes.
ii.                    Industrialization: Increasing industries bring more land under settlements, roads and allied infrastructure. This cause environmental degradation.
iii.                  Urbanization:  Forests are cut down for urbanization.

3.       What is eco – mark?
i.                     Eco – mark is a certification mark issued by bureau of Indian Standards of products confirming to a set of standards aimed at the least impact on the ecosystem.
ii.                    We should use the eco – mark products only, because these products are eco – friendly.

4.       What does this log indicate? Write some names of products on which you find this logo.
This logo indicates Recycle.
This logo is found on plastic articles such as bottles, toys, furnitures, paper bags and electronic equipments etc.
5.       What is recycling? Give one example.
i.                     Recycling is a type of green technology that uses old materials to make new products.
ii.                    E.g. used paper is being recycles to produce computer papers, books, paper plates, toilets papers, paper towels, etc.
Q4. Write short notes on:
1.       Chipko movement:
i.                     Chipko is a pioneering movement in environment conservation in India.
ii.                    It was first initiated in the Marwad region of Rajasthan by the Bishnoi community.
iii.                  The principle behind 'Chipko' is 'hug the tree' to prevent it from being felled.
iv.                  This simple principle was used in the Himalayas in the 1970s to protect the forest from contractors.
v.                   When the forest was to be auctioned for timber extraction, the local community started a 'Chipko movement' in that area and protected the forest.

2.       Narmada Bachao Andolan:
i.                     It is a social movement consisting of tribal people, farmers, environmentalists and human right activists against the Sardar Sarovar dam being built across Narmada river, Gujarat, India.
ii.                    Its leading spokes – persons Medha Patkar and Baba Amte were 1991 recipients of right livelihood award.

3.       Beej Bachao Andolan:
i.                     Beej Bachao Andolan is a movement to save indigenous seeds in the Garhwal Himalayas.
ii.                    The movement is successfully conserving 40 different crops, including cereals such as red wheat, oats, rice, amaranthus, buck wheat, corn millets, beans and pulses, oil seeds, medicinal varieties of turmeric and ginger and a variety of vegetables.
iii.                  The farmers of the 'Beej Bachao Andolan' travel in the region to collect seeds of different crop and form community seed banks.
Q5. Answer briefly.
1.       Define eco – efficiency. What are the ways to achieve eco – efficiency?
Eco – efficiency mean the creation of goods and services using fewer resources and creating less waste. Eco – efficiency can be achieved by:
i.                     Use of alternative raw materials: e.g. Agricultural  residues like rice straw and wheat straw are good substitutes for wood.
ii.                    Shifting to renewable sources of energy: e.g. renewable sources of energy such as biofuels, solar power, wind power, tidal power, hydropower, geo – thermal power etc. do not create pollution and are inexhaustible.
iii.                  Technology that reduces pollution: e.g. solar water heater, solar cooker, wind mills etc. Are examples of pollution free technologies. Use of CNG and unleaded petrol in vehicles also reduces pollution.
iv.                  Reusing and recycling waste: e.g. waste products like paper, glass, plastics and metals can be recycled to make new products.
v.                   Durable goods: e.g. use of fibre optic cables in place of copper telephone wire not only reduces the use of mineral sources but also provides better communication.

2.       Give the need to use eco – friendly technology.
Eco – friendly technology is needed:
i.                     To conserve our present resources and safe guard the environment from future damage.
ii.                    To utilize resources efficiently with minimum wastage and to ensure that environmental damage is minimal.
iii.                  To help towards a cleaner environment and to reduce the rapid depletion of resources.

3.       Write the objectives of The Water Act.
The Water Act defines water pollution and water quality standards. It prescribes penalties to the offenders. Objectives of the Act.
i.                     To prevent and control water pollution.
ii.                    To maintain or restore the wholesomeness of water.
iii.                  To establish  boards for the preservation and control of water pollution.

4.       Write the salient features of the Biomedical Waste Rules.
Salient features of Biomedical waste rules are:
i.                     These rules deal with the generation, handling, treatment and disposal of biomedical waste.
ii.                    These rules apply to all persons who generate, collect, receive, store, transport, treat, dispose, or handle biomedical waste in any form.
iii.                  It is duty of the occupant to take all steps to ensure that such waste is handled without any adverse effect to human health and environment.
iv.                  These rules specify waste management procedures.

5.       What is meant by consumerism? How does it affect sustainable development?
i.                     Consumerism is the desire to purchase more goods and services which may not be required at that time.
ii.                    Consumerism leads to consumption of more resources and generation of more waste.
iii.                  Thus, consumerism will hamper sustainable development.

6.       What is the three 'R mantra'? Write its significance.
i.                     The three 'R mantra' is the very effective 'Reduce, Reuse and Recycle approach' to eliminate waste and conserve resources.
ii.                    Reducing, reusing and recycling; cut the amount of energy used to produce new items. As a result, the amount of pollution generated is reduced.
iii.                  It also conserves valuable natural resources that would otherwise be sed to produce new items from raw material.

7.       What are the powers of MPCB to control water and air pollution?
Powers of the MPCB:
i.                     Implementation of environmental laws and pollution control.
ii.                    Laying down standards and securing their compliance.
iii.                  Inspection and monitoring of all sources of pollution.
iv.                  Issuance of notices with time limit to comply with the legal requirements.
v.                   Closure of the defaulter unit in grave cases.
vi.                  Prosecution in cases of serious violation.

8.       Do you think that use of 'kullad' (clay cup) in railways for providing tea and coffee is a way of sustainable use of resources? How?
i.                     Use of 'kullad' in railways for providing tea and coffee is a way of sustainable use of resources.
ii.                    The kullads can be reused as many times as possible. Reusing saves the energy used to produce new items and also conserves valuable 'natural resources'.
iii.                  Thus, it is a way of sustainable use of resources.

9.       How will you obtain alternative fuel?
i.                     A lot of research is needed to obtain alternative fuel.
ii.                    Alternative fuels will be obtained from renewable resources of energy such as solar power, wind power, tidal power, geo – thermal power, biomass etc.
iii.                  The organic waste from agriculture, factories and domestic use is also utilized for energy generation.

10.    What is sustainable use? How is it possible at individual level and community level?
Sustainable use : The use of resources that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs is the sustainable use of resources.
It is possible at individual level by adopting measures like:
i.                     Controlling usage of electricity by using power saver lamps and appliances, switching off the appliances when not in use.
ii.                    Waste management by segregating dry and wet garbage. Compost can be prepared from wet garbage which will reduce transportation fuel.
iii.                  At community level, rotational grazing is a good example of collective decision leading to sustainable use of pasture land.
iv.                  Use of photovoltaic system for gardens, traffic signals and street lighting.

11.    What are the objectives of sustainable development? Define sustainable development.
Sustainable development: It is defined as "The development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."
Objectives of sustainable development are:
i.                     Reduce pollution by using eco – friendly technology.
ii.                    Restrain the use of natural resources to ensure availability for the future generations.
iii.                  Protection of environment.
iv.                  Social equality in accessing resources.
v.                   Continuous economic growth.

12.    Write three measures to conserve water.
i.                     In agriculture, techniques like drip – irrigation and mulching help to use irrigation water more efficiently and to avoid wastage.
ii.                    Rain water harvesting and creation of water storage structures like recharge pit in a building can help in water conservation.
iii.                  During festivals like Gokulashtami and Holi wastage of water should be avoided.
iv.                  For washing and cleaning purposes use only the required amount of water.

13.    State two functions of MPCB for prevention of water pollution.
MPCB is the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board. Their functions are:
i.                     To plan comprehensive programmes for the prevention, control or abatement of pollution.
ii.                    To inspect sewage or trade effluent treatment and disposal facilities.
iii.                  To support and encourage the developments in the fields of pollution control, waste recycle, reuses, eco – friendly practices, etc.
iv.                  To educate and guide the entrepreneurs in improving environment by suggesting appropriate pollution control technologies and techniques.
v.                   To create public awareness about the clean and healthy environment and consider the public complaints regarding pollution.

14.    State work of WBCSD.
i.                     WBCSD is the World Business Council for Sustainable Development.
ii.                    It works to create sustainable future for business, society and environment.
iii.                  The term eco – efficiency was coined by WBCSD.

iv.                  Eco – efficiency means creation of goods and services using fewer resources and creating less waste. 

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