Civics 1. Forms Of Government And Democracy Class 9th Social Science Term 1 Tamilnadu Board Solution

Class 9th Social Science Term 1 Tamilnadu Board Solution
Exercise
  1. A system of government in which one person reigns supreme, usually a king or queen, is…
  2. A system of government by one person with absolute power. Choose the correct answer:…
  3. When a country is governed by a few privileged, the form of government is called Choose…
  4. Former Soviet Union is an example for _________. Choose the correct answer:…
  5. Select the odd one Choose the correct answer:
  6. Abraham Lincoln was the President of the ________. Choose the correct answer:…
  7. Kudavolai system was followed by Choose the correct answer:
  8. Direct Democracy in olden times existed Choose the correct answer:…
  9. In which country has democracy originated? Choose the correct answer:…
  10. From which language was the term “Democracy” derived? Choose the correct answer:…
  11. In a democracy, the final authority rests with Choose the correct answer:…
  12. Which one of the country has Presidential form of government Choose the correct answer:…
  13. The largest democratic country in the world is Choose the correct answer:…
  14. Assertion (A) : Direct democracy is practiced in Switzerland.Reason (R) : People directly…
  15. Assertion (A) : India has a parliamentary form of democracy.Reason (R) : Indian parliament…
  16. The meaning of Franchise is Choose the correct answer:
  17. The grant of universal franchise creates Choose the correct answer:…
  18. Prime Minister of India is appointed by Choose the correct answer:…
  19. The President of India can nominate Choose the correct answer:
  20. The First general elections after independence in India were held in Choose the correct…
  21. The Constitution of India was finally adopted on _________ Fill in the blanks:…
  22. The two types of democracy are _______ and ________ Fill in the blanks:…
  23. An example for direct democracy is _________ Fill in the blanks:
  24. India has a _______form of democracy. Fill in the blanks:
  25. _________ was the first Prime Minister of independent India. Fill in the blanks:…
  26. The first general elections were held in British India in the year __________ Fill in the…
  27. The Parliament House in India was designed by _________ and _________ Fill in the blanks:…
  28. 1. Autocracy182. Right to voteArthashastra3. ChanakyaVatican4. TheocracyNorth Korea Match…
  29. Give Abraham Lincoln’s definition of democracy. Give short answers:…
  30. Mention the forms of democracy. Give short answers:
  31. Distinguish between direct and indirect democracy. Give short answers:…
  32. What are the challenges to democracy? explain. Answer in detail:
  33. Explain the conditions necessary for the success of democracy in India. Answer in detail:…
  34. What is your opinion about democracy in India? Answer in detail:
  35. Discuss in the class what is a universal adult franchise? Why is it important? Project and…
  36. “Democracy is the power of majority which respects minority.” Discuss. Project and…
  37. Conduct a mock election in your class. Project and Activity:
  38. A group discussion on the merits and demerits of democracy of India in the classroom.…
  39. Will you have the right to equality under a dictatorship? What would be the attitude…
  40. How does democracy lead to a peaceful and a harmonious life among the citizens? Explain.…
  41. Select a group of countries. Research each country and tell what type of government it…

Exercise
Question 1.

Choose the correct answer:

A system of government in which one person reigns supreme, usually a king or queen, is called ________

A. autocracy

B. monarchy

C. democracy

D. republic


Answer:

For instance, Bhutan.


Autocracy means rule by one person which exercises absolute power.


Democracy refers to a system of government in which people elect their representative through voting.


Republic means a state with no king or queen. The people and their elected representatives hold complete power.


Question 2.

Choose the correct answer:

A system of government by one person with absolute power.

A. Aristocracy

B. Theocracy

C. Democracy

D. Autocracy


Answer:

For example, North Korea.


Aristocracy is a system of government in which the power is held with nobility.


Theocracy refers to a state in which power is proclaimed by the religious head.


Democracy refers to a system of government in which people elect their representative through voting.


Question 3.

Choose the correct answer:

When a country is governed by a few privileged, the form of government is called

A. Oligarchy

B. Parliamentary

C. Democracy

D. Republic


Answer:

For example, China.


Parliamentary form of government is democratic. It derives its legitimacy by winning the confidence of the legislature.


In a democracy, people elect their representatives through free and fair elections.


Republic means a state with no king or queen.


Question 4.

Choose the correct answer:

Former Soviet Union is an example for _________.

A. aristocracy

B. theocracy

C. oligarchy

D. Republic


Answer:

It is a system of government in which power is controlled by a small group of people. In the former, the Soviet Union, Bolsheviks or the Communist Party ran the state.


Question 5.

Choose the correct answer:

Select the odd one

A. India

B. USA

C. France

D. the Vatican


Answer:

It is a state which is run by a religious head, the Pope. He rules the country in the name of God. Thus, it is a theocratic state. Whereas, India, France, and the USA are democracies in which people elect their representative by voting.


Question 6.

Choose the correct answer:

Abraham Lincoln was the President of the ________.

A. USA

B. UK

C. USSR

D. India


Answer:

He defined democracy as “a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.


Question 7.

Choose the correct answer:

Kudavolai system was followed by

A. Cheras

B. Pandyas

C. Cholas

D. Kalabhras


Answer:

It was a system of administering Village followed in ancient Tamil Nadu. It was a unique feature that formed the basis of local government.


Question 8.

Choose the correct answer:

Direct Democracy in olden times existed

A. In the republics of ancient India

B. Among the USA

C. In the city-state of ancient Athens

D. Among the UK


Answer:

In Direct democracy people directly participate and get involved in the affairs of the government. Direct democracy was practiced in ancient Greece.


Question 9.

Choose the correct answer:

In which country has democracy originated?

A. India

B. Switzerland

C. The USA

D. Athens


Answer:

Democracy originated around 2,500 years ago in the ancient city-states of Greece.


In India, in ancient Tamil Nadu, Kudavolai system was a notable system of administration.


Question 10.

Choose the correct answer:

From which language was the term “Democracy” derived?

A. Greek

B. Latin

C. Persian

D. Arabic


Answer:

The term “Democracy” has been derived from two Greek words: demos meaning people and cratia meaning power. Thus democracy means the power of the people.


Question 11.

Choose the correct answer:

In a democracy, the final authority rests with

A. The Parliament

B. People

C. The Council of Ministers

D. The President


Answer:

They have the power to make or to destroy the government. The elected representatives respond to the need and demands of the people. The people indirectly elect their leaders who in turn appoint ministers. The government is responsible and accountable to the people.


Question 12.

Choose the correct answer:

Which one of the country has Presidential form of government

A. India

B. Britain

C. Canada

D. USA


Answer:

In America, the president is elected by the people. There is no Prime Minister. Whereas, in India, Britain, and Canada, the president is a nominal head of the state and is appointed indirectly. The prime minister is directly voted to power. They practice a parliamentary form of government.


Question 13.

Choose the correct answer:

The largest democratic country in the world is

A. Canada

B. India

C. USA

D. China


Answer:

India has a parliamentary form of democratic government. It is a republic. The country has the highest number of voters.


In Canada, there is a constitutional monarchy. The crown is the head of the state. China, on the other hand, is a communist country. It is not a democracy.


Question 14.

Choose the correct answer:

Assertion (A) : Direct democracy is practiced in Switzerland.

Reason (R) : People directly participates in decision making.

A. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)

B. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) does not explain (A)

C. (A) is correct and (R) is false

D. (A) is false and (R) is true


Answer:

Switzerland is a direct democracy, which means that Swiss citizens directly participate in the process of legislation.


Question 15.

Choose the correct answer:

Assertion (A) : India has a parliamentary form of democracy.

Reason (R) : Indian parliament comprises two houses.

A. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)

B. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) does not explain (A)

C. (A) is correct and (R) is false

D. (A) is false and (R) is true


Answer:

India has a parliamentary form of government, in which the parliament makes laws. Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha are the two houses of parliament. The lower is elected by the people whereas the members of the upper house are elected indirectly.


Question 16.

Choose the correct answer:

The meaning of Franchise is

A. Right to elect

B. Right to vote for the poor

C. Right to vote

D. Right to vote for the rich


Answer:

Voting is a universal and legal right. It means that people are not discriminated on the grounds of caste, race, gender, etc, in terms of granting these rights. These rights accord equal value for each person.


Question 17.

Choose the correct answer:

The grant of universal franchise creates

A. Social Equality

B. Economic Equality

C. Political Equality

D. Legal Equality


Answer:

All citizens are equal before the law. Universal franchise means that all citizens are granted voting rights irrespective of their caste, class, gender, religion, etc. It thus creates political equality wherein people expect equitable treatment under the law.


Question 18.

Choose the correct answer:

Prime Minister of India is appointed by

A. Lok Sabha

B. Rajya Sabha

C. Speaker

D. President


Answer:

President. The Prime Minister is elected by the people and appointed by the President of India. The President is the Nominal Head of the state.


Question 19.

Choose the correct answer:

The President of India can nominate

A. 12 members to Lok Sabha

B. 2 members of Rajya Sabha

C. 12 members to Rajya Sabha

D. 14 members of Rajya Sabha


Answer:

Those who contribute extensively in the fields of art, science, social science, and literature are nominated by the President to Rajya Sabha.


Question 20.

Choose the correct answer:

The First general elections after independence in India were held in

A. 1948

B. 1952

C. 1957

D. 1947


Answer:

To hold national elections in the poverty-ridden country was a tedious task. Though India became independent in 1947, it took her more than 4 years to conduct elections in an illiterate country. The first general election was held between 25 October 1951 and 21 February 1952.


Question 21.

Fill in the blanks:

The Constitution of India was finally adopted on _________


Answer:

26 November 1949.

After much deliberation and discussion, the constituent assembly came up with the constitution of India. It was drafted by B.R. Ambedkar. It was a document which contained provisions for governing the nation. It was implemented on 26 January 1950.



Question 22.

Fill in the blanks:

The two types of democracy are _______ and ________


Answer:

Direct and Indirect democracy.

When people directly participate in the decision-making process and get involved in the affairs of government, it is called direct democracy. Indirect democracy is one in which people indirectly exercise power by electing their representatives through free and fair elections.



Question 23.

Fill in the blanks:

An example for direct democracy is _________


Answer:

Switzerland. It is the only country in the contemporary world which practices direct democracy.



Question 24.

Fill in the blanks:

India has a _______form of democracy.


Answer:

Parliamentary. India has a bicameral legislature that legislates laws; Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. The members of Parliament are accountable to the people.



Question 25.

Fill in the blanks:

_________ was the first Prime Minister of independent India.


Answer:

Jawahar Lal Nehru.

He was the first democratically elected Indian Prime Minister. He was elected consecutively for three terms. He was the most charismatic leader who led the nation and helped in the process of nation-building.



Question 26.

Fill in the blanks:

The first general elections were held in British India in the year __________


Answer:

1920.

Those elections were conducted to elect members to the Imperial Legislative Council and the Provincial Councils. They were the first elections in the country’s history.



Question 27.

Fill in the blanks:

The Parliament House in India was designed by _________ and _________


Answer:

Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker in 1912- 13. They were British Architects who constructed the Parliament House. The work was completed in the year 1927.



Question 28.

Match the following:



Answer:

1. Autocracy- North Korea


In North Korea, one person has absolute power and rules the country. This system of government is called Autocracy.


2. Right to Vote- 18


In India, all those who are above the age of 18 are given voting rights. Thus all adults, irrespective of caste, class, gender, religion, etc enjoy suffrage.


3. Chanakya- Arthashastra


Arthashastra was written in the 3rd century by Chanakya. It mentions about the autonomous village community of ancient India which formed the basis of local government.


4. Theocracy- Vatican


The Vatican is a theocratic state ruled by a priest or a religious head in the name of God. The Pope is the head of the state.



Question 29.

Give short answers:

Give Abraham Lincoln’s definition of democracy.


Answer:

Abraham Lincoln was the President of USA. He was elected in 1861. He defined democracy as “the government of the people, by the people and for the people”. The USA is also a democracy with a presidential form of government.



Question 30.

Give short answers:

Mention the forms of democracy.


Answer:

There are two forms of democracy that have been identified.

• Parliamentary form of government, in which the leader of the majority party forms the government and is appointed as the prime minister. he is accountable to the parliament. The legislature and executive are inter-dependent. The president acts as a nominal figure.


• Presidential form of government, in which the President is the chief executive who is directly elected by the people. He is not accountable to the legislature. There is no Prime Minister.



Question 31.

Give short answers:

Distinguish between direct and indirect democracy.


Answer:

When people directly participate in the decision-making process and get involved in the affairs of government, it is called pure or direct democracy. For instance, Switzerland.

Indirect democracy is one in which people indirectly exercise power by electing their representatives through free and fair elections. The leader that gains the majority of seats then forms the government. It is also known as representative democracy. For instance, India.



Question 32.

Answer in detail:

What are the challenges to democracy? explain.


Answer:

Democracy is considered as the best form of government. In such a system the representatives are elected by the people. Thus they represent the will of the people. The government works for the welfare of all and does not discriminate among its citizens. However, despite all this, democracy faces a number of challenges:

• Illiteracy: education is the key to a successful democracy. In India, especially the poor are the most vulnerable and illiterate section of society. It gives impetus to further problems such as unemployment, child labor, and poverty.


• Poverty: it is one of the biggest challenges to democracy. It leads to huge disparities between the rich and the poor. The government has to spend a major portion of its resources in lifting up the people from poverty. Thus, they are a huge burden to the developing economy.


• Gender discrimination: Gender equality is a crucial feature of democratic societies. Lack of women participation and gender discrimination undermines the basic principle of equality which is a crucial component of democracy.


• Regionalism: the diversity of languages, cultures, communities, ethnicities etc encourages the regional identity. Regionalism seeks to advance the causes of the region. In the history of democratic India, regionalism has been a potent threat to democracy. There are demands within regions for separate statehood. For instance, the demand of Khalistan by Sikhs in Punjab. It can hinder the integrity and sovereignty of the nation.


• Corruption: it is the most glaring problem faced by many democratic countries. The democratic leader ten to be corrupt which makes the system inefficient. The resources are not efficiently utilized by the government. This leads to dissatisfaction among people.


• Casteism, Communalism, and Religious fundamentalism: They are the most serious and vulnerable challenges to democracy. It can weaken the democratic values of a nation. The leaders play identity politics to collect votes from a particular community. Representatives are elected on the basis of caste or religion work for the welfare of people belonging to their caste and religion. Thus it creates a deep division in society.


• The criminalization of politics: A lot of candidates who contest elections and win have a criminal background. Thus, the credibility of the democratic system gets threatened.


• Political violence: in order to achieve political goals, the state makes use of violence. It either targets a particular community or does not act when violence erupts. This causes a law and order problem.



Question 33.

Answer in detail:

Explain the conditions necessary for the success of democracy in India.


Answer:

Despite various challenges, India has emerged as a successful democracy. It has successfully stood on the odds and crossed each hurdle. Following conditions are necessary for the success of democracy in India:

• Empowerment of the poor and illiterates. They must be encouraged to enjoy the benefits of democracy.


• The elected representatives should not misuse their power and position and waste the resources. The public wealth must be allocated in judicious projects of public welfare.


• Social evils such as gender discrimination, poverty, illiteracy, dowry system must be eradicated. All this hinder the development of democracy and makes the process rough. Other dangers such as separatist elements from which democracy suffers must also be dealt with adequately.


• Unbiased media is one of the strongest forces behind the success of democracy. An impartial media that impart correct information to people without any manipulation helps in framing a healthy public opinion.


• The people must be well informed about the affairs of politics. They must offer a healthy criticism of the government to make the system work better. Thus, the presence of strong public opinion is a necessary condition.


• The public should be tolerant of all the differences that exist in society. They must be open in their views and respect the opinion of others. Instead of communalization of politics, communal harmony must be created among the people.


• The constitution of India guarantees several fundamental rights to its citizens. The government must make an effort to make poor people aware and realize about them.


• An efficient system of checks and balances must be maintained to keep an eye on the working of elected representatives. The citizens must be conscious enough to scrutinize the government.


• The opposition must act responsibly and offer sustained criticism to the policies of the government. A powerful and responsible opposition can make the system better.


Thus, all these steps can help in smoothening the functioning of democracy. The success of democracy depends upon the people. They should imbibe the democratic values for the efficient working of the system.



Question 34.

Answer in detail:

What is your opinion about democracy in India?


Answer:

Ever since Independence, India has practiced a democratic system of government. The demand for democracy has been evident from the colonial period. One of the greatest successes is that even after so many differences, India has remained to be one.

India is considered as the largest democracy of the world. The elections are conducted in a free and fair manner. There is no manipulation of votes. The three branches of government, all of which are independent maintains a check on each other. Thus no organ of the government can trespass its limits. The mandate of the people stands above all. The participation of the people makes democracy a success.


India has the longest constitution in the world. The document grants certain fundamental rights to its citizens. Freedom of expression is one of the key features of democracy.


The policies of the government are designed to uplift the backward and the disadvantaged communities. For example, Reservation policy aims to bring an end to caste discrimination.


However, still, India has to go a long way. It faces a number of challenges. Illiteracy, poverty, unemployment, child labour, gender discrimination are the core areas on which the government should focus. Corruption must be also dealt. Only then can we enjoy the fruits of democracy.



Question 35.

Project and Activity:

Discuss in the class what is a universal adult franchise? Why is it important?


Answer:

Universal adult franchise means that all adult citizens regardless of class, caste, gender, religion, ethnicity, race are given the right to vote. In India, all those above 18 years of age enjoy suffrage rights. It is a very important aspect of a successful democracy. It makes the government accountable to the people.

The idea of equality is central to the democratic system. Universal adult franchise lay the foundation stone of equality. It means that all citizens are equal before the law and that each has an equal say in the affairs of government. No one is privileged and none is denied access to resources. It does not discriminate on the basis of social and economic backgrounds. Despite all the inequalities that exist in society, universal franchise attempts to create political equality. It provides political education to citizens and develops a feeling of self-respect among them.


Universal adult franchise increases people’s participation in democracy. The interests and demands of all are heard and taken into account. It leads to a healthy system of government, where people are active decision makers.



Question 36.

Project and Activity:

“Democracy is the power of majority which respects minority.” Discuss.


Answer:

In democracy, the government is elected by the people of the country. In a democracy the constitution of the country is followed.

Democracy is the power of majority which respects minority in the following ways;


(i) The constitution includes laws for the protection of the minorities.


(ii) Minorities are given reserved representation in the Parliament.


(iii) Minorities are given reserved opportunities in employment.



Question 37.

Project and Activity:

Conduct a mock election in your class.


Answer:

To be done by the student.



Question 38.

Project and Activity:

A group discussion on the merits and demerits of democracy of India in the classroom.


Answer:

Democracy has both merits as well as demerits.

MERITS OF DEMOCRACY


• It makes the government accountable and responsive to the needs of people.


• Democracy also leads to transparency in the Indian political system.


• The value of equality is the most important component. There is no discrimination among the rich and poor. Policies are made for the welfare of all.


• Fraternity and brotherhood is also an equally important aspect. The unity and integrity of the nation are upheld.


• The citizens are aware of their responsibilities. They are aware of the fact that the rights granted to them come with certain duties which they need to perform in order to make democracy successful.


• The decentralization of power makes governance easy. The power is distributed from centre to state and further to local bodies. Thus, the local self-government helps in making system efficiently.


• The policies are designed to ensure the development and prosperity of the entire society.


• The sovereign enjoys power as long as he wins the confidence of people. The consent of the people sustains the government. Thus, popular sovereignty is key merit.


DEMERITS OF DEMOCRACY


• Indirect representation means that the interests of all are not taken into account. Only those who gain a majority of votes come to power. The elected representatives may distort the demands of people to suit their personal political preferences. Thus, the representative nature of democracy does not always ensure accountability.


• There are a large number of people who stand out from voting in the elections. They do not participate nor show any interest in the affairs of the government. This leads to a lower turnout in elections.


• In a democracy, the elections generally produce fractured mandate. This leads to the formation of the coalition government. The ideological rift among different parties and the failure to come on consensus is another disadvantage of democracy.


• It takes a long time to legislate laws and enforce a particular policy. The decision-making process is long drawn. Walkouts, sit-ins, delay the making of decisions. The judiciary is also not so efficient.



Question 39.

HOTS

Will you have the right to equality under a dictatorship? What would be the attitude regarding public opinion in such a country?


Answer:

Dictatorship is a form of government where one person or one political entity gets all the authority and control over the government. Only the authority or dictator has all the power to make decisions. People have no right to equality or personal freedom to enjoy in dictatorship unlike democracy. People are forced to follow everything the dictator say even it is against their interest. Government here is based on brute force and no value to public opinion is given.



Question 40.

HOTS

How does democracy lead to a peaceful and a harmonious life among the citizens? Explain.


Answer:

1. Non-democratic regimes usually just ignore the internal problems or suppress it.


2. Democracy ensures inclusion of every group including minorities and its interests in the decision making.


3. Democracies usually develop a procedure to conduct their competition. This reduces the possibility of these tensions becoming explosive or violent.


4. No society can fully and permanently resolve conflicts among different groups. But we can certainly learn to respect these differences and we can also evolve mechanisms to negotiate the differences.



Question 41.

Life Skills:

Select a group of countries. Research each country and tell what type of government it has: Aristocracy, Monarchy, Autocracy, Oligarchy, Theocracy, Democracy, Republic. Then, provide characteristics of this country that helped you determine the type of government.



Answer: