Civics 1. Human Rights And The U.n.o Class 8th Social Science Term 2 Tamilnadu Board Solution

Class 8th Social Science Term 2 Tamilnadu Board Solution

Exercise
Question 1.

Choose the correct answer:

1. Human Right Day is observed on.
A. 10th December

B. 14th December

C. 20th December


Answer:

Human Rights Day is observed globally on 10th December annually. The day was chosen to honour the United Nations General Assembly’s adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.


Question 2.

Choose the correct answer:

The National Human Right Commissions was constituted in
A. 1990

B. 1993

C. 1998


Answer:

The National Human Right Commission was established through legislation in the Parliament in 1993. Hence it is a statutory body.


Question 3.

Choose the correct answer:

The term of office of each member of the Human Right Commissions is
A. 6 Years

B. 10 Years

C. 5 Years


Answer:

National Human rights Commission is a statutory body comprising of 1 chairman and 4 other members.

They are appointed by the President of India for the term of 5 years or till they attain 70 years of age whichever is earlier.


Eligibility:


a. the Chairman should be the retired judge of the Supreme Court.


b. The 2 members should be either a current judge of High court or retired.


c. The Other 2 members must have a practical knowledge of Human rights.


Question 4.

Choose the correct answer:

In 1995 women from all over the world gathered at
A. Beijing

B. New York

C. New Delhi


Answer:

All the women over the world gathered at Beijing in 1995 for the Fourth World Conference on Women. Here a resolution was adopted concerning the equality of men and women. It was also known as the Beijing Declaration.


Question 5.

Fill in the blanks:

The headquarters of the National Human Right Commission is at …………..


Answer:

The headquarters of the National Human Right Commission is at New Delhi.

NHRC is a statutory body which is a watchdog of Human Rights in the Country. The headquarter of the commission is at New Delhi, India.



Question 6.

Fill in the blanks:

Any member of the State Human Right Commissions Shall be removed from office grounds of incapacity by…………….


Answer:

Any member of the State Human Right Commissions Shall be removed from office grounds of incapacity by President.

The members of State Human rights Commission are appointed by the governor, but they could be removed only by the President on the grounds:


a. if he is proven insolvent.


b. If he is engaged in any paid employment.


c. If he is unfit to continue office.


d. If he is unsound mind.



Question 7.

Fill in the blanks:

International women’s day is celebrated on………………..


Answer:

International women’s day is celebrated on 8th March.

International Women’s’ day is celebrated every year on 8th March to commemorate Women’s rights. Until 1957 it was celebrated by only Socialist and Communist countries but after that United Nation adopted this day to celebrate globally.



Question 8.

Match the following:



Answer:

1. National Human Rights Commission was passed as an act of parliament in 1993, hence it is a statutory body that protects human rights. It is also called as a watchdog of Human Rights.


2. State Human Rights Commission: According to the National Human Rights Commission act 1993 every state must have a state Human Rights Commission. State Human Rights Commission Tamil Nadu was established in the year 1995.


3. United nation Organization: It is an intergovernmental Organization that was formed by 51 members after the 2nd world war in 1995 to protect human rights throughout the world.


4. The Hindu Marriage Act was passed in 1955 as an act of parliament to codify the laws relating to marriage among Hindus and others.



Question 9.

Answer the following briefly:

What are Human Rights?


Answer:

Human Rights are essential for every human being to lead a life with dignity. Human Rights are legal or natural rights. They are considered as fundamental rights which are inherited to a person simply due to the fact that he/she is a human being.

UNO has declared the Human Rights and has said it is the duty of the state to protect human rights. Human Rights are important for human development.



Question 10.

Answer the following briefly:

What steps have been undertaken to avoid violation of Human Rights?


Answer:

Human Rights are not localized rather applicable around the globe. The League of nations that came into existence after the 1st World War formed a separate directive on Human Rights and after the 2nd World War United Nation Organization was formed to safeguard the Human Rights.

Hence, the establishment of UNO is to prevent Human Rights violations in any part


of the world. In order to achieve this, the UNO, directed all its member countries to protect the Human Rights compulsorily.


Indian Constitution takes the liability to protect Human Rights. The Preamble has discussed expressions like equality, fraternity and Freedom. There are 6 Fundamental Rights like Right to equality, Right to freedom, Right against exploitation, Right to religious freedom, Cultural and Educational rights and Right to a constitutional remedy, to protect the Human Rights. The parliament has also set up the National Human Rights Commission as a watchdog of the Human rights.



Question 11.

Answer the following briefly:

Mention some civil and Political Right.


Answer:

The Civil and Political rights are to protect people’s freedom.

Civil Rights:


It includes protecting people from discriminations on the grounds of caste, color, creed, race, gender, etc . And to also provide the citizens the freedoms of thought, expression, speech, assembly and movement.


Political rights:


This includes ensuring natural justice to the citizens including the right to a fair trial, right to seek legal remedy , right to participate in civil society or politics, right to petition and Right to vote.



Question 12.

Answer the following briefly:

Mention some Act passed to remove the injustice done to women.


Answer:

Some acts concerning women are :

a. Eve Teasing Act: There is a section in the Indian Penal code that prohibits anyone from giving obscene comments on women.


b. Child Marriage Act: It prohibits a girl below 18 years of age from getting married.


c. Dowry Prohibition act: This act prohibits from giving or taking dowry anyone engaged in this would serve a jail term.



Question 13.

Answer in detail:

Explain the power and functions of the National Human Rights Commission.


Answer:

National Human Rights Commission was formed in 1993 by the act of parliament, hence it is a statutory body. It is a watchdog of human rights in the country. It is a multi-member commission with a chairman and 4 other members.


The Powers of National Human Rights Commission are:


a. It has the power to enquire into any matter of human rights violation.


b. It can intervene in any proceeding related to a violation of human rights.


c. It has the power to review and safeguard for the protection of human rights.


d. It has the power of the civil court.


The functions of the National Human Rights commission are:


a. The main function of NHRC is to make a recommendation to the concerned government or authority in case of violation of rights.


b. To strengthen the institution in order to resolve the human rights issue.


c. To undertake functions that would promote human rights.



Question 14.

Answer in detail:

Explain the powers and function of the state Human Rights Commission.


Answer:

The National Human Rights Commission Act 1993 states to set up State Human rights commission at the state level. The state commission has a chairman and two members and they are appointed by the Governor.

The powers of SHRC are as below:


a. It has all the powers of the civil court and their proceedings have a judicial character.


b. It can intervene in any proceeding related to a violation of human rights.


c. It has the power to review and safeguard for the protection of human rights.


The functions of the SHRC are:


a. The main function of NHRC is to make a recommendation to the concerned government or authority in case of violation of rights.


b. To strengthen the institution in order to resolve the human rights issue.


c. To undertake functions that would promote human rights.




Formative Assessment
Question 1.

Collect pictures from newspaper and magazines, which show the violation of various fundamental rights. Paste them in your scrapbook and write a note on the right being violated.


Answer:





Question 2.

Prepare posters to spread awareness on Women’s Rights and Child Labour.


Answer:



Question 3.

Find out more about the role of UNICEF in India.


Answer:

UNICEF began its mission in 1946 as a relief organization for children after World War II. Its mandate soon expanded to helping children whose lives were at risk in developing countries. It is fully committed to working with the Government of India to ensure that each child born in this vast and complex country gets the best start in life, thrives and develops to his or her full potential. Its goal is to advance the rights of children, adolescents and women to survival, growth, development, participation and protection by reducing inequities based on caste, ethnicity, gender, poverty, region or religion.