Employment In India And Tamil Nadu Class 9th Social Science Term 1 Tamilnadu Board Solution

Class 9th Social Science Term 1 Tamilnadu Board Solution
Exercise
  1. We take age group _______ years for computation of the workforce. Choose the correct…
  2. Which is the correct sequence of various sectors in GDP of India in the descending order?…
  3. Which one of the following sectors is the largest employer in India? Choose the correct…
  4. Which one of the following is not in Primary Sector? Choose the correct answer:…
  5. Which one of the following is not in the Secondary Sector? Choose the correct answer:…
  6. Tertiary Sector include/s Choose the correct answer:
  7. Match the List I with List II using the codes given below:List Ia. Agriculture, Forestry,…
  8. Which sector is not included in the occupational pattern? Choose the correct answer:…
  9. Which Delhi Sultan of medieval India formed ‘Employment Bureau’ to solve the unemployment…
  10. _________ sector is registered and follows government rules. Choose the correct answer:…
  11. ________ sector provides job security and higher wages Choose the correct answer:…
  12. Find the odd one Choose the correct answer:
  13. The sectors are classified into Public and Private sectors on the basis of Choose the…
  14. Assertion (A): The unorganised sector of the economy characterised by the household…
  15. People who employ workers and pay rewards for their work is termed as _______. Choose the…
  16. __________ continues to be the largest employer in Tamil Nadu. Choose the correct answer:…
  17. In ______ sector, the employment terms are not fixed and regular. Fill in the blanks:…
  18. Economic activities are classified into _______ and _______ sectors. Fill in the blanks:…
  19. ________ has always featured as an important element of development policy in India. Fill…
  20. Employment pattern changes due to ________________ Fill in the blanks:…
  21. The nature of employment in India is _________. Fill in the blanks:…
  22. ________ of the economy is the number of people in the country, who work and also capable…
  23. Public sector means ______________ Fill in the blanks:
  24. Match the following:1. Public sectora. Banking2. Private sectorb. Poultry3. Primary…
  25. What is the labour force of the economy? Give Short answers:
  26. Why are children and old age (above 60 years) are not considered for computation of…
  27. What are the three sectors of an economy? Give Short answers:
  28. Agriculture, despite a sharp decline in Gross Domestic Product, continues to be the…
  29. Explain: (a) primary sector; (b) secondary sector; (c) tertiary sector. Answer in detail:…
  30. Explain the employment structure of India. Answer in detail:
  31. Compare the employment conditions prevailing in the organised and unorganised sectors.…
  32. Differentiate between the public sector and the Private sector. Answer in detail:…
  33. Make a long list of all kinds of work that you find adults around you. In what way can you…
  34. A research scholar looked at the working people in the city of Chennai and found the…
  35. Classify the following list of occupations under primary, secondary and tertiary…
  36. The tertiary sector is in top position in the world now. Justify HOTS…
  37. Discuss the sectors of your village economy. Life Skill

Exercise
Question 1.

Choose the correct answer:

We take age group _______ years for computation of the workforce.

A. 12–60

B. 15–60

C. 21–65

D. 5–14


Answer:

We take age group 15-60 years for computation of the workforce. The age group below 15 are excluded because according to tot he Child Law Act, all the children below this age are prohibited from working. The people above 60 have a lesser level of productivity, so they are excluded.


Question 2.

Choose the correct answer:

Which is the correct sequence of various sectors in GDP of India in the descending order?

A. Primary sector, Secondary sector, Tertiary sector

B. Primary sector, Tertiary sector, Secondary sector

D. Tertiary sector, Secondary sector, Primary sector

D. Secondary sector, Tertiary sector, Primary sector


Answer:

Tertiary sector, Secondary sector, Primary sector.


The tertiary sector has 59% in GDP, the secondary sector has 24.9% and the primary sector has 16.1%.


Question 3.

Choose the correct answer:

Which one of the following sectors is the largest employer in India?

A. Primary Sector

B. Secondary Sector

C. Tertiary Sector

D. Public sector


Answer:

The largest employer in India is the Primary sector. It employs 51% of the total workforce of the country.


Question 4.

Choose the correct answer:

Which one of the following is not in Primary Sector?

A. Agriculture

B. Manufacturing

C. Mining

D. Fishery


Answer:

Manufacturing is not included in the primary sector. It is included in the secondary sector.


Question 5.

Choose the correct answer:

Which one of the following is not in the Secondary Sector?

A. Construction

B. Manufacturing

C. Small Scale Industry

D. Forestry


Answer:

Forestry is not in the secondary sector. It is included in the primary sector.


Question 6.

Choose the correct answer:

Tertiary Sector include/s

A. Transport

B. Insurance

C. Banking

D. All of these


Answer:

It included transport, insurance, and banking.


Question 7.

Choose the correct answer:

Match the List I with List II using the codes given below:

List I

a. Agriculture, Forestry, Fishery and Mining

b. Manufacturing, Electricity Gas and Water Supply

c. Trade, Transport and Communication

d. Unincorporated Enterprises and Household industries

List II

1. Unorganised sector

2. Service Sector

3. Secondary sector

4. Primary Sector

A. (A)-1 (B)-2 (C)-3 (D)-4

B. (A)-4 (B)-3 (C)-2 (D)-1

C. (A)-2 (B)-3 (C)-1 (D)-4

D. (A)-3 (B)-2 (C)-4 (D)-1


Answer:

a. Agriculture, Forestry, Fishery, and Mining - 4. Primary sector


b. Manufacturing, Electricity Gas and Water Supply - 3. Secondary sector


c. Trade, Transport, and Communication - 2. Service Sector


d. Unincorporated Enterprises and Household industries- 1. Unorganized sector.


Question 8.

Choose the correct answer:

Which sector is not included in the occupational pattern?

A. Primary sector

B. Secondary sector

D. Tertiary sector

D. Private sector



Answer:

The correct answer is d) private sector. The occupational pattern includes the primary sector secondary sector and the tertiary sector.


Question 9.

Choose the correct answer:

Which Delhi Sultan of medieval India formed ‘Employment Bureau’ to solve the unemployment problem.

A. Muhamad Bin Tugluq

B. Allauddin Khilji

C. Feroz Shah Tugluq

D. Balban


Answer:

Feroz Shah Tugluq formed ‘Employment Bureau’ to solve the unemployment problem.


Question 10.

Choose the correct answer:

_________ sector is registered and follows government rules.

A. Agriculture

B. Organised

C. Unorganized

D. Private


Answer:

Organised sector is registered and follows government rules.


Question 11.

Choose the correct answer:

________ sector provides job security and higher wages

A. Public sector

B. Organised sector

C. Unorganised sector

D. Private sector


Answer:

Organised sector is registered and follows government rules. It provides job security and higher wages.


Question 12.

Choose the correct answer:

Find the odd one

A. Banking

B. Railways

C. Insurance

D. Small Scale Industry


Answer:

Banking, railways and insurance are a part of the tertiary sector.


Question 13.

Choose the correct answer:

The sectors are classified into Public and Private sectors on the basis of

A. number of workers employed

B. nature of economic activity

C. ownership of enterprises

D. employment conditions


Answer:

The sectors are classified into Public and Private sectors on the basis of the ownership of enterprises.


Question 14.

Choose the correct answer:

Assertion (A): The unorganised sector of the economy characterised by the household manufacturing activity and small-scale industry.

Reason (R): Jobs here are low paid and often not regular

A. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)

B. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) does not explain (A)

C. (A) is correct and (R) is false

D. (A) is false and (R) is true


Answer:

The correct answer is a. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A).


Question 15.

Choose the correct answer:

People who employ workers and pay rewards for their work is termed as _______.

A. employee

B. employer

C. labour

D. caretaker


Answer:

People who employ workers and pay rewards for their work is termed as employer.


Question 16.

Choose the correct answer:

__________ continues to be the largest employer in Tamil Nadu.

A. Agriculture

B. Manufacturing

C. Banking

D. Small Scale Industry


Answer:

It continues to be the largest employer in Tamil Nadu.


Question 17.

Fill in the blanks:

In ______ sector, the employment terms are not fixed and regular.


Answer:

In the unorganised sector, the employment terms are not fixed and regular.

In the unorganised sector, the employment terms are not fixed and regular. There is also no job security or increment of salary.



Question 18.

Fill in the blanks:

Economic activities are classified into _______ and _______ sectors.


Answer:

Economic activities are classified into the organised and unorganised sector.

Organized sector is the sector that has to comply with government rules and regulations. The other hand the unorganised sector is the one which is not under the control of the government.



Question 19.

Fill in the blanks:

________ has always featured as an important element of development policy in India.


Answer:

Inclusive growth has always featured as an important element of development policy in India.



Question 20.

Fill in the blanks:

Employment pattern changes due to ________________


Answer:

Employment pattern changes due to changes in the economic cycles.



Question 21.

Fill in the blanks:

The nature of employment in India is _________.


Answer:

The nature of employment in India is both organised and unorganised.



Question 22.

Fill in the blanks:

________ of the economy is the number of people in the country, who work and also capable of working.


Answer:

Labour force of the economy is the number of people in the country, who work and also capable of working.



Question 23.

Fill in the blanks:

Public sector means ______________


Answer:

Public sector means that sector of the economy whose main objective is to promote the welfare of its citizens by providing efficient services.



Question 24.

Match the following:



Answer:

1. Public sector —d. Service motive


The main objective of the public sector is to provide services to its citizens and work for their welfare. Such as police and army


2. Private sector — c. Profit motive


The main objective of the private sector is to maximise its profit. For example, the banking sector


3. Primary sector — b. Poultry


The primary sector is a sector that exploits natural resources to produce goods. For example, poultry, fishing, etc.


4. Tertiary sector — a. Banking


The tertiary sector is the service sector. It is the biggest employer in today's world. For example, transport and communication.



Question 25.

Give Short answers:

What is the labour force of the economy?


Answer:

The labour force of the economy is the people who are able to and willing to work. It includes both the employed and the unemployed looking for work. It does not include people who do not earn which includes retired people and students. The largest labour force is in China, India and USA.



Question 26.

Give Short answers:

Why are children and old age (above 60 years) are not considered for computation of workforce?


Answer:

The Child Labour law prohibits the working of children. This is done to prevent any form of abuse and exploitation. The people above 60 years have reached old age and productivity by them decreases. Thus, the children and old age (above 60 years) are not considered for computation of workforce.



Question 27.

Give Short answers:

What are the three sectors of an economy?


Answer:

The three sectors of an economy are:

Primary sector: Primary sector is the sector that uses natural resources to produce goods. The natural resources play a very important part in this sector. For example, agriculture, fishing, mining, etc.


Secondary sector: Secondary sector is the sector that transforms 1 physical good into another. For example, manufacturing, electricity, water supply, etc.


Tertiary sector: The tertiary sector is the service sector of the economy. It is extremely important in developed countries. For example, health, trade, transport, etc.



Question 28.

Give Short answers:

Agriculture, despite a sharp decline in Gross Domestic Product, continues to be the largest employer in Tamil Nadu. Give reason.


Answer:

Agriculture is the primary occupation of approximately 70% of people in Tamil Nadu. Only 34% of the population resides in the urban areas, and the rest of them resides in rural areas. In these areas, the most prominent activity is agriculture approximately. Thus, despite a sharp decline in Gross Domestic Product, it continues to be the largest employer in Tamil Nadu.



Question 29.

Answer in detail:

Explain: (a) primary sector; (b) secondary sector; (c) tertiary sector.


Answer:

a) Primary sector is the sector that uses natural resources to produce goods. The natural resources play a very important part in this sector. For example, agriculture, fishing, mining, quarrying, forestry etc are a part of this sector. This is dominant in the underdeveloped countries. It accounts for 17% of India's GDP give employment to 51% of the working force. It is a base for all the other sectors in the economy. The other 2 sectors have failed to create enough jobs, hence most of the people tend to seek employment in this sector.


In the initial stages of development, the primary sector is of utmost importance. It was the job sector for a large part of the working population of India. Slowly, and gradually as the country developed there was a shift of importance from the primary sector to the other sectors. The government took active participation for the improvement of this sector. It introduced the following:
1. Consolidation of holdings
2. Abolition of zamindari system
3, Land ceiling
4. Introduction of HYV seeds, pesticides, insecticides
5. Better quality of fertilizers and irrigation methods.


b) Secondary sector is the sector that transforms 1 physical good into another. This is important because the primary sector is unable to give us all the goods required to make our life comfortable. For example, manufacturing, electricity, water supply etc are included in this. It is also called the manufacturing sector or the industrial sector. It employs about 22% of the workforce with around 26% contribution to the GDP. With globalization and technology led business growth, it had drifted from being a labour-intensive sector to the capital-intensive sector. Although the industrial production has increased 8-fold, the level of jobs available has not shown any significant growth.


With all of this, the system improved, and more food could be produced. People were now able to take up other activities such as transport, trader, craftsperson etc. Factories came into existence and now people could shift from working in farms to these factories. The consumers for these factory-made goods increased.


c) The tertiary sector is the service sector of the economy. It is extremely important in developed countries. For example, health, trade, transport etc. It brings more than 60% of GDP while employing less than 27% of the workforce. Although there is a significant increase in the GDP, enough jobs are not provided. This is termed as 'Jobless growth'




Question 30.

Answer in detail:

Explain the employment structure of India.


Answer:

The employment structure of India can be based on two types of classification:


PRIMARY SECTOR, SECONDARY SECTOR AND TERTIARY SECTOR:


The primary sector is the sector that uses natural resources to produce goods. B natural resources play a very important part in this sector. For example, agriculture, fishing, mining, quarrying, forestry, etc. are a part of this sector. This is dominant in the underdeveloped countries. It accounts for 17% of India's GDP give employment to 51% of the working force. It is a base for all the other sectors in the economy. The other 2 sectors have failed to create enough jobs, hence most of the people tend to seek employment in this sector.


Secondary sector is the sector that transforms 1 physical good into another. This is important because the primary sector is unable to give us all the goods required to make our life comfortable. For example, manufacturing, electricity, water supply, etc. are included in this. It is also called the manufacturing sector or the industrial sector. It employs about 22% of the workforce with around 26% contribution to the GDP. With globalization and technology led business growth, it had drifted from being a labour-intensive sector to the capital-intensive sector. Although the industrial production has increased 8-fold, the level of jobs available has not shown any significant growth.
The tertiary sector is the service sector of the economy. It is extremely important in developed countries. For example, health, trade, transport etc. It brings more than 60% of GDP while employing less than 27% of the workforce. Although there is a significant increase in the GDP, enough jobs are not provided. This is termed as 'Jobless growth'.


ORGANISED SECTOR AND UNORGANISED SECTOR: the Organized sector is the sector that has to comply with the government rules and regulations. The other hand the unorganised sector is the one which is not under the control of the government.


The organised sector consists of those companies that are registered by the government. They are properly set and well-regulated units. They have to comply with all the regulations of the government such as the Factory Act, Minimum wage act etc. Non-compliance is a punishable offence. They enjoy the security of employment. They have to work a fixed number of hours. If they work more than that, they will be paid for their overtime. The workers are paid on the basis of a prescribed scale at regular intervals. They get additional benefits like medical leave, pension, provident fund, annual leave etc. There is also an increment in salary. They work in a good working atmosphere.


The unorganised sector ahs those institutions which are beyond the government's control. They are small and scattered units. They usually do not follow any rules or regulation of the government. There is a lack of discipline. They are low paid and not regular. Moreover, no other benefit is provided to them. There is no security of employment. The workers may be asked to leave without any reason. There is rarely an increment in salary. They have to work in a tough working atmosphere.



Question 31.

Answer in detail:

Compare the employment conditions prevailing in the organised and unorganised sectors.


Answer:

Based on the employment situation, the economy is divided into the organized sector and unorganized sector. Organized sector is the sector that has to comply with government rules and regulations. The other hand the unorganised sector is the one which is not under the control of the government.




Question 32.

Answer in detail:

Differentiate between the public sector and the Private sector.


Answer:

The public sector and the private sector have different objectives, perspectives and methods of operations. The basic difference between the two are given below:




Question 33.

Projects and Activities:

Make a long list of all kinds of work that you find adults around you. In what way can you classify them?


Answer: 


Question 34.

Projects and Activities:

A research scholar looked at the working people in the city of Chennai and found the following:



Answer: 


Question 35.

Projects and Activities:

Classify the following list of occupations under primary, secondary and tertiary sectors.

Milk vendor, tailor, teacher, doctor, farmer, postman, engineer, potter, fisherman, artisans, policeman, banker, driver, carpenter.



Answer: 


Question 36.

HOTS

The tertiary sector is in top position in the world now. Justify


Answer:

Tertiary sector is one of the three sectors of the economy, the other two are the primary sector and the secondary sector. It is the service sector of the economy. It is extremely important in developed countries. It provides services (intangible). The main focus is the deal with customers and not producing physical products. It includes many services such as banking, transport, communication, trade etc. It is one of the growing sectors in India due to the following reasons:

For a developing country, it is extremely important to have a well-developed system of education and health in the country, provided by this country. It is the responsibility of the government to provide such services.


It helps to create a large number of employment opportunities in different areas.


The growth of this sector is also required for the efficient and smooth working of the primary and secondary sector.


With the increase in income, especially in urban areas, the demand for certain services such as professional training, communication, tourism, etc. arises.


With the increase in population, the number of hospitals, schools, banks, tourism facility demands has also increased.


With the increase in the number of working women, the demand for certain facilities like cook, housekeeper, daycare has increased.


The development of agriculture and industries have increased the demand for transportation, warehouse, retail etc


Thus, the tertiary sector is in the topmost position among sectors in the world.



Question 37.

Life Skill

Discuss the sectors of your village economy.





Answer:

A village economy has a little bit of each sector prevalent in it. The most widespread sector in the village is the primary sector. The primary sector is the sector that obtains the resources in their raw form, mostly from natural sources which are then used to produce a good. The major activities that are included in the primary sector are the ones that are directly dependent on the environment such as Land, water and vegetation. Most of the people are engaged in agriculture. Agriculture is one of the most important activities in the primary sector. It provides livelihood to a large number of people of the village. Apart from agriculture, a few other activities such as fishing, forestry, hunting and gathering, and mining are also carried out in a significant number, However one major problem that is faced In The villages is the issue of underemployment and disguised employment. Underemployment means the number of people that work on the agricultural field is less than the number of people that are actually required. On the other hand, disguised employment means a large number of people are working on the land even though it is not required.
The government has also been successful to some extent to solve the problems of the village economy. For example seeds and fertilizers are now available at a subsidized price. The government has also agreed to increase the funds allocated for the facilities of irrigation. The other two sectors of secondary sector and tertiary sector have not been very successful or widespread in the village areas.


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