History 1. Evolution Of Humans And Society - Prehistoric Period Class 9th Social Science Term 1 Tamilnadu Board Solution

Class 9th Social Science Term 1 Tamilnadu Board Solution
Exercise
  1. __________ is genetically closest to humans Choose the correct answer:…
  2. The period called_____________ marks the beginning of agriculture and animal…
  3. Direct ancestor of modern man was _____________. Choose the correct answer:…
  4. ____________ inscriptions datable to third century BCE refer to the Cheras, Cholas and…
  5. ____________ refers to the area covering Egypt, Israel-Palestine and Iraq. Choose the…
  6. Sir Robert Bruce Foote, a geologist from England first discovered the ____________ tools…
  7. (i) The period before the introduction of writing is called pre-history.(ii) The…
  8. (i) The Neolithic people used polished stone axes called Celts(ii) Evidence of Neolithic…
  9. Assertion (A): Many of the Mesolithic sites are found nearby rivers and tanks.Reason (R):…
  10. Assertion (A): The Ashokan inscriptions datable to third century BCE refer to the Cheras,…
  11. _____________ is an object or tool made or modified by humans. Fill in the blanks:…
  12. The primitive multi-cellular life first appeared in the age of _____________. Fill in the…
  13. Hand axes and cleavers are the important tool types of the __________ culture. Fill in the…
  14. The methods and techniques involved in the production of stone tools are called __________…
  15. _____________ is known as the Middle Stone Age, as it is placed between the Palaeolithic…
  16. a) The concept ‘survival of the fittest’ contributed to the scientific understanding of…
  17. a) Among the great Apes, Orang-utan is genetically the closest to humans.b) The ancestors…
  18. Match the following:1. Palaeo anthropologyTeris2. Hand axe toolsVenus3. Images on stone…
  19. Discuss how the age of speculation made humans become conscious and knowledgeable. Answer…
  20. Write a note on the impact of pastoralism on the prehistoric people in Tamil Nadu. Answer…
  21. Enumerate the distinctive characteristics of Neanderthals. Answer the following briefly:…
  22. List out the features of Megalithic Burial types. Answer the following briefly:…
  23. Domestication of animals is a milestone in human history. Explain. Answer the following…
  24. Examine the tool making technical skills of lower Palaeolithic people. Answer the…
  25. Hominid and Homininsa) Who are Hominids?b) Who was the earliest human ancestor to make…
  26. Earliest Lithic Assemblages of Human ancestorsa) Where are Acheulian tools are reported to…
  27. The developments in the fields of agriculture, pottery and metal tools are considered a…
  28. The history of humans is closely related to the history of the earth. Elucidate. Answer…

Exercise
Question 1.

Choose the correct answer:

__________ is genetically closest to humans

A. Gorilla

B. Chimpanzee

C. Orang-utan

D. Great Apes


Answer:

Answer Chimpanzee is the correct answer because 98% of the DNA of a chimpanzee is identical to a human being.


Question 2.

Choose the correct answer:

The period called_____________ marks the beginning of agriculture and animal domestication.

A. Palaeolithic

B. Mesolithic

C. Neolithic

D. Megalithic


Answer:

Answer the Neolithic era is the correct answer. Plants like wheat, barley and peas were domesticated and animals such as dogs, sheep and goat were first domesticated.


Question 3.

Choose the correct answer:

Direct ancestor of modern man was _____________.

A. Homo habilis

B. Homo erectus

C. Homo sapiens

D. Neanderthal man


Answer:

Neanderthal man was the direct ancestor of modern man. it existed in Europe and parts from southwestern Asia to Central Asia. It lived about 4,00,00 to 40,000 years ago.


Question 4.

Choose the correct answer:

____________ inscriptions datable to third century BCE refer to the Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas in ancient Tamilagam.

A. Pulekesin

B. Ashoka

C. Chandragupta

D. Dhanananda


Answer:

Ashoka is the correct answer. He ruled in the third century.


Pulekesin was the ruler of Chalukyas dynasty and he ruled in the 6th century.


Chandra Gupta founded the empire in fourth century BCE.


Dhanananda was the successor of Mauryan empire. His reign is counted from 329-321 BCE.


Question 5.

Choose the correct answer:

____________ refers to the area covering Egypt, Israel-Palestine and Iraq.

A. Great Rift Valley

B. Fertile Crescent

C. Solo river

D. Neander Valley


Answer:

Fertile Crescent is the correct answer. It covers the area of Egypt, Israel Palestine and Iraq and forms the shape of the crescent moon.


Great Rift valley stretches from the northern part of Syria to Central Mozambique in East Africa.


Solo River is on an Indonesian island.


Neander valley is located in the German state of North Rhine- Westphalia.


Question 6.

Choose the correct answer:

Sir Robert Bruce Foote, a geologist from England first discovered the ____________ tools at Pallavaram near Chennai.

A. Stone Age

B. Palaeolithic

C. Mesolithic

D. Neolithic


Answer:

Palaeolithic is the correct answer. In 1863, he first discovered these tools near Chennai.


C.J. Thomson proposed the idea of classifying history into Three age systems. Stone age marks the production of stone implements for making tools.


Mesolithic period refers to the time period between the Palaeolithic and Neolithic periods. It is also known as the middle stone age.


Neolithic period succeeds the Mesolithic period. It is known as new age as new grinding and polishing techniques were used for the tools.


Question 7.

Choose the correct answer:

(i) The period before the introduction of writing is called pre-history.

(ii) The pre-historic people developed language, made beautiful paintings and artefacts.

(iii) The pre-historic societies are treated as literate.

(iv) The pre-historic period is called ancient.

A. (i) is correct

B. (i) and (ii) are correct

C. (i) and (iv) are correct

D. (ii) and (iii) are correct


Answer:

Option (b) is the correct answer. Pre-historic people developed language and created beautiful art. But they failed to develop a writing system. The pre-historic societies were treated as pre-literate. But this does not mean that they were primitive.


Question 8.

Choose the correct answer:

(i) The Neolithic people used polished stone axes called Celts

(ii) Evidence of Neolithic village is found at Payyampalli in Chennai district

(iii) The cultural period that succeeded the Neolithic is called the Bronze Age

(iv) The period that witnessed domestication of animals and cultivation of crops is called Mesolithic

A. (i) is correct

B. (ii) is correct

C. (ii) and (iii) are correct

D. (iv) is correct


Answer:

The evidence of Neolithic village is found at Payyampalli in Vellore district.


The cultural period that succeeded Neolithic is called Iron age.


The period that witnessed domestication of animals and cultivation of crops is called Neolithic period.


Question 9.

Choose the correct answer:

Assertion (A): Many of the Mesolithic sites are found nearby rivers and tanks.

Reason (R): Irrigation management developed during the Mesolithic period.

A. A and R are correct and R explains A

B. A and R are correct but R doesn’t explain A

C. A is correct but R is incorrect

D. A and R both are incorrect


Answer:

Mesolithic age is the age between the Palaeolithic age and the Neolithic age. It has characteristics of both the ages. The people from this age lived on hunting, fish and food gathering. Later they also big and the domestication of animals.


Question 10.

Choose the correct answer:

Assertion (A): The Ashokan inscriptions datable to third century BCE refer to the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyas and Satyaputras outside his empire in Tamilagam.

Reason (R): Ancient kings of Tamilagam commenced their political rule in the Iron Age.

A. A and R are correct and R explains A

B. A and R are correct but R doesn’t explain A

C. A is correct but R is incorrect

D. A and R both are incorrect


Answer:

Both these statement give facts about the Tamilagam Empire.


Chelas, Cholas, Pandyas and Satyaputras where powerful leaders of the Maurya dynasty. Since the Ashoka inscription are dated to 3rd Century BC, they must have started their rule in the iron age.


Question 11.

Fill in the blanks:

_____________ is an object or tool made or modified by humans.


Answer:

Artefact is an object or tool made or modified by humans.


It is something which is given shape by humans. They provide archaeological evidence. Examples include pottery, metal objects, jewellery etc.



Question 12.

Fill in the blanks:

The primitive multi-cellular life first appeared in the age of _____________.


Answer:

The primitive multi-cellular life first appeared in the age of Proterozoic era.


Fish, reptiles as well as various plants appeared in the Palaeozoic era.


In Mesozoic era dinosaurs came into being.


Australopithecines (literally ‘southern ape’) appeared in the Cenozoic era.



Question 13.

Fill in the blanks:

Hand axes and cleavers are the important tool types of the __________ culture.


Answer:

Hand axes and cleavers are the important tool types of the Lower Palaeolithic culture. Hand axes and cleavers were meant to fulfil subsistence needs.

In the Middle Palaeolithic period, lithic technology was used. Points and scrapers were used.


In Upper Palaeolithic phase there was innovation in tool technology. Blades and burins were widely used.



Question 14.

Fill in the blanks:

The methods and techniques involved in the production of stone tools are called __________ technology.


Answer:

The methods and techniques involved in the production of stone tools are called Lithic technology. The word ‘lith’ means ‘stone’. Its earliest evidence is found in modern-day Ethiopia.



Question 15.

Fill in the blanks:

_____________ is known as the Middle Stone Age, as it is placed between the Palaeolithic and Neolithic.


Answer:

Mesolithic period is known as the Middle Stone Age, as it is placed between the Palaeolithic and Neolithic. The people in this period were hunter-gatherers and used microlithic technology. The dating of the Mesolithic Culture varies across different parts of the world.



Question 16.

Find out the correct statement:

a) The concept ‘survival of the fittest’ contributed to the scientific understanding of human origins.

b) The book on the Origin of Species was published by Herbert Spencer.

c) Darwin’s theory of biological evolution connects with the process of natural selection.

d) Geology is the study of lithic technology.


Answer:

a) TRUE. This concept was given by Herbert Spencer and Charles Darwin.


b) FALSE. The book on the origin of species was published by Charles Darwin in 1859.


c) TRUE. His theory is published in his two books On the Origin of Species in 1859 and the Descent of Man in 1871.


d) FALSE. Geology is a science that deals with physical structure and substances of the earth.



Question 17.

Find out the correct statement:

a) Among the great Apes, Orang-utan is genetically the closest to humans.

b) The ancestors to humans were called Hominins and their origins have been traced to Africa.

c) Flake is a small chip that has flaking on both sides.

d) Acheulian is the main block of stone from which small chips are flaked by using a hammer stone.


Answer:

a) FALSE. Chimpanzees, gorillas, Orangutan and humans are collectively known as Great Apes. Chimpanzee is genetically the closest to humans. 98% of its DNA is identical to humans.


b) TRUE. Hominins emerged around 5 to 7 million years ago. It is a zoological tribe which includes members of a wide variety of human ancestors.


c) FALSE. Bifaces are tools that have flaking on both sides. Whereas, the flake is a small chip removed from a large stone block called the core.


d) FALSE. Acheulian is the hand axe tools. The core is the main block of stone from which small chips are flaked by using a hammer stone.



Question 18.

Match the following:



Answer:

1. Palaeo anthropology- the study of human ancestors


It is a branch of archaeology that deals with the origin and development of early humans.


2. Hand axe tools- Acheulian


Acheulian were the first-hand axes. They were founded at a place called St. Acheul in France.


3. Images on stone and Bone- Venus


They are found in Upper Palaeolithic culture. They were produced in Europe and part of Asia.


4. Red sand dunes- teris


Teri dune is a coastal landscape. They are typically found in parts of Tamil Nadu.


5. Stone artefacts of small size- Microliths


The people of Mesolithic culture made use of Microlithic technology. Microliths were small stone used as tools during this period.



Question 19.

Answer the following briefly:

Discuss how the age of speculation made humans become conscious and knowledgeable.


Answer:

Earlier humans lacked scientific knowledge and worshipped nature as god. The age of speculation made humans conscious and knowledgeable. They became curious and began thinking and asking questions about nature and the world around them. The scientific enquiry began with the renaissance movement in the 15th and 16th centuries. Scientific foundations were laid. Thus, in the course of evolution, humans understood as well as explained the world and universe.



Question 20.

Answer the following briefly:

Write a note on the impact of pastoralism on the prehistoric people in Tamil Nadu.


Answer:

● In the earlier times, the only option available to mankind to earn a livelihood was farming which helped them to grow crops.


● Pastoralism is a branch of agriculture which is associated with the animal husbandry.


● The people in Tamilnadu took care of their livestock and other animals which they used to hunt.


● They also used this livestock to get dairy products and obtain me.


● This led to a change in the agricultural methods and provided them with many advantages.


● For example, they learnt to manage the herds in a better manner.


● It led to the social organisation.


● It also reduced the unnecessary hunting of animals.


● It was a good means of earning livelihood as well as the easiest way of living.



Question 21.

Answer the following briefly:

Enumerate the distinctive characteristics of Neanderthals.


Answer:

The people of Lower Palaeolithic culture were known as Neanderthals. They neither wear stitched clothes nor have warm houses to live in colder climates. Thus, they lack basic amenities. They buried the dead in a systematic manner and were the first human ancestors to mourn on death.



Question 22.

Answer the following briefly:

List out the features of Megalithic Burial types.


Answer:

megalithic burials had very distinct characteristics.

● The burials were created by large stones for the dead people


● Along with the skeleton of the dead person, grave goods such as iron objects, carnelian beads and bronze objects were also placed.


● Those burials which do not have human bones were known as memorial bones as they contain only grave goods.


● The megalithic burials are classified as dolmens, cists, menhirs, rock-cut caves, urn burials and sarcophagus.



Question 23.

Answer the following briefly:

Domestication of animals is a milestone in human history. Explain.


Answer:

Domestication of animals and plants in a Neolithic period marked a hallmark in human history. Earlier, people hunted and gathered food for their subsistence. But the introduction of domestication led to excess food production which could be supplied to other areas as well. Also, domestication of animals developed as a part of symbiotic life. Friendly animals such as dogs, sheep and goat were domesticated. Thus, domestication was the main factor that led to the development of early civilizations.



Question 24.

Answer the following briefly:

Examine the tool making technical skills of lower Palaeolithic people.


Answer:

For lower Palaeolithic people hand axes and cleavers were the important tools. They were used for cutting, digging and piercing and were fitted with a wooden and bone handle. Hammer stones and spheroids were also used. The quartzite pebbles and cobbles were chosen as raw materials. These tools were found in the soil deposits and in the exposed river side.



Question 25.

Answer all the questions given under each caption:

Hominid and Hominins

a) Who are Hominids?

b) Who was the earliest human ancestor to make tools in Africa?

c) How are the modern humans known?

d) Name any one species of this tribe


Answer:

a) hominids are one of the human ancestors which refer to the family of species of modern and extinct great apes (chimpanzee, gorillas and orang-utans) including humans.


b) Homo Habilis (handy humans) were the earliest human ancestor to make tools in Africa. They were around 2.6million years ago and were a member of hominins.


c) Modern Humans were known as Homo Sapiens, that is, a wise man which first came into being around 3,00,000 years ago in Africa. They migrated and dispersed in various parts of the world.


d) Humans are the only living species of this tribe. They stand erect, walk with two legs and have large brains.



Question 26.

Answer all the questions given under each caption:

Earliest Lithic Assemblages of Human ancestors

a) Where are Acheulian tools are reported to have been found in Karnataka and in Madhya Pradesh?

b) What is meant by Lithic Technology?

c) What are Biface tools?

d) Name a few stone tools used by human ancestors.


Answer:

a) Acheulian are hand axes. These tools have been found at Isampur in Karnataka and Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh.


b) Lithic technology includes methods and techniques which are used in the production of tools made of stone.


c) Biface tools have flaking on both sides. They have physical symmetry and convey the cognitive skills of humans.


d) A few stone tools used by the human ancestors are mentioned below:


● Hammer stones


● Hand axes


● Cleaver


● Bifaces



Question 27.

Answer the following in detail:

The developments in the fields of agriculture, pottery and metal tools are considered a landmark in the life of Megalithic period-Substantiate.


Answer:

Megalithic period or Iron Age was an important time period.


Developments in the field of agriculture


● Irrigation management techniques were developed in this period.


● Irrigation as a technology developed in deltaic regions.


● Millets and rice were cultivated as well as cattle and sheep were domesticated.


Developments in the field of pottery


● People used black and red colours to make black ware and red ware pottery which have lustrous surface.


● They were used for cooking, storage and dining purposes.


Developments in the field of iron technology and metal tools


● People placed iron objects in burials as grave goods.


● Iron swords and daggers were some of the objects found in burials.


● Iron tools were also used in agriculture, hunting, gathering and in battles.


Thus, Iron Age led to the extensive use of iron technology. People of this age had knowledge of metallurgy and pottery making. They also used iron and bronze objects and gold ornaments.



Question 28.

Answer the following in detail:

The history of humans is closely related to the history of the earth. Elucidate.


Answer:

The history of humans is closely related to the history of the earth. The geological, archaeological and biological records of historical times are contained in the upper layers of the earth. They help in reconstructing the history of the earth and of various living organisms. The fossil bones of the human ancestors are embedded in the layers of the earth.

Palaeoanthropologists (those who study human evolution through fossil remains) and archaeologists (those who study human evolution through material remains) excavate the soil and rock layers on the earth and extract evidence about human ancestors. These layers and the fossils are scientifically dated which helps us to study the various stages in human evolution and prehistory. Through the gathered evidence, they attempt to understand the evolution of human history and developments in a chronological order.


The earth was formed approximately 4.54 billion years ago. Conditions for the emergence of organisms were first developed followed by plants and animals. Finally, the foundation for the evolution of humans was laid down which help us to study the history of humans.


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