Immune System Class 10th Science Tamilnadu Board Solution

Class 10th Science Tamilnadu Board Solution
Part-a
  1. Pick out a case of healthy state of an individual.
  2. Which one of the following is not socially balanced?
  3. _________ is a bacterial disease.
  4. One of the following is transmitted through air. Find it out.
  5. The most serious form of malaria is caused by Plasmodium ________.…
  6. An example of protozoan infecting our intestine is _______________.…
  7. One of the means of indirect transmission of a disease is _____.
  8. When antibodies, extracted from other animals are injected into your body, what kind of…
  9. The first vaccine injected into a just born baby is ___________.
  10. In order to lead a healthy life, a person should enjoy physical, mental and social…
  11. A child eats food rich in carbohydrates and avoids protein in its diet. Which type of…
  12. Assertion (A) Expulsion of excess unused glucose in the blood through urine is observed in…
Part-b
  1. Marasmus and Kwashiorkar are both protein deficiency defects. Marasmus differs from…
  2. A list of disorders are given below. Pick out the odd one out and give…
  3. What are the symptoms of common cold?i) ____________________ii) ____________________…
  4. Differentiate between the diseases-night blindness and colour blindness.…
  5. After observing dark patches with itching sensation on the skin of a student in a school…
  6. Name the vector host of the malarial parasite. Mention the species of malarial parasite…
  7. Name the tests done for the diagnosis and confirmation of AIDS.
  8. What is triple antigen? Name the three diseases which, can be prevented by using it.…
  9. Mention the type of immunity acquired by a baby through breast-feeding.…
  10. Study the following statements and state whether they are true or false.i) Colour…
  11. Ramya is suffering from bleeding gums and loosening teeth. On diagnosis, it was found to…
  12. Match B and C with A:ABCVitaminsDeficiency diseasesSymptomsVitamin ANyctalopiaNight…
  13. A health worker advises the people in a locality not to have tattooing done using common…
  14. Match the following:List I (Disease)List II ( Symptoms)A. AmoebiasisI) Chills and high…
  15. List out the diseases based on their mode of transmission (water borne, air borne, and…
  16. i) Give any three examples for the most infectious diseases in man and their causative…
  17. A student had an attack of measles and recovered from the infection. His science teacher…
  18. Name the causative organisms responsible for ring worm in humans? Mention the symptoms of…
  19. Pick out the odd ones:i) AIDS: Retro virus, lymphocytes, BCG, ELISAii) Bacterial disease:…
  20. In the manufacturing of anti-venom injection against snake bite, antibodies produced in…
  21. Say whether each of the following diseases is a metabolic disorder, a genetic disorder or…
  22. Find the correct statement (True / False):i) Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium…
  23. Malarial fever is not caused in a person immediately after introducing the sporozoites by…
  24. Name the stages of Plasmodium.i) introduced by an infected Anopheles mosquito.ii) picked…
  25. Name two diseases that are transmitted by houseflies. Mention their causative pathogens.…
  26. Observe the following flow-chartMention the metabolic disorder ‘X’ and the causative…
Part-c
  1. Kala has delivered a baby,i) Suggest the immunization schedule for the baby, in the first…
  2. There is a widespread outbreak of malaria in your area.i) Suggest some controlling…
  3. 15th October is observed as ‘World Hand washing Day’.i) Tell your friend the effects of…
  4. What is immunity? Write a note on the various types of immunity.
  5. Describe the life-cycle of plasmodium in man.
  6. List out the various diseases caused due to nutritional deficiency. Add a note on their…

Part-a
Question 1.

Pick out a case of healthy state of an individual.
A. Mr. X is recovering from an infectious disease.

B. Mr. Y takes insulin injection everyday.

C. Mrs. Z is very depressed.

D. Mr. K does his duty and spends time joyfully.


Answer:

Healthy state is a condition of a person in which the person is physically, mentally and socially well-being. His body is able to adjust itself and strike a balance with the physical, mental and social environments.


Question 2.

Which one of the following is not socially balanced?
A. He enjoys a birthday party.

B. He behaves rudely over trivial matters.

C. He adjusts well to the surrounding situation.

D. He attends to his ailing mother at the hospital.


Answer:

An individual who is able to adjust in society by maintaining good interpersonal relationship with family members and colleagues at work spot. He is free from interpersonal conflicts and will never quarrel with others. He is said to be socially balanced. Behaving rudely over unimportant is not socially balanced behaviour.


Question 3.

_________ is a bacterial disease.
A. Meningitis

B. Rabies

C. Tetanus

D. Small pox


Answer:

Tetanus caused by a bacterium Clostridium tetani. This bacteria can enter the body through the mouth, nostrils (nose), cuts and bruises (wound) on the skin. It reproduce in the body and produce poisonous substance (toxins) which affect health.


Question 4.

One of the following is transmitted through air. Find it out.
A. Tuberculosis

B. Meningitis

C. Typhoid

D. Cholera


Answer:

Tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused Mycobacterium. It is spread through air. It affects lungs and other parts of our body such as bones, joints, lymph glands, alimentary tract, liver, kidney, etc.


Question 5.

The most serious form of malaria is caused by Plasmodium ________.
A. ovale

B. malariae

C. falciparum

D. vivax


Answer:

Four different species of Plasmodium such as Plasmodiumvivax,Plasmodiummalariae,Plasmodiumfalciparum and Plasmodiumovale are present in India and cause malaria. But malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is dangerous and can cause death.


Question 6.

An example of protozoan infecting our intestine is _______________.
A. Plasmodium vivax

B. Entamoeba histolytica

C. Trypanosoma gambiense

D. Taenia solium


Answer:

Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that infects our large intestine causes fever, constipation, abdominal pain and cramps. Stools with excess mucous and blood clot. These are the signs of amoebiasis.


Question 7.

One of the means of indirect transmission of a disease is _____.
A. sneezing

B. coughing

C. through placenta

D. using utensils of patients


Answer:

Common cold is a viral disease which is spread through contaminated objects such as handkerchief, bedding, clothes, utensils, toilet articles, etc.


Question 8.

When antibodies, extracted from other animals are injected into your body, what kind of immunity do you gain?
A. Artificially active acquired immunity

B. Artificially passive acquired immunity

C. Naturally active acquired immunity

D. Naturally passive acquired immunity


Answer:

In Artificially passive acquired immunity, a ready-made antibody (a proteinaceous substance produced in our body against infection) is introduced from outside, instead of stimulating the body to produce antibody with antigenic stimulus. For example polio vaccine.



Question 9.

The first vaccine injected into a just born baby is ___________.
A. Oral polio

B. DPT

C. DPT and Oral polio

D. BCG


Answer:

BCG stands for Bacillus Calmette–Guérin. This is the first vaccine given to new-born. BCG protects from the disease tuberculosis (TB).


Question 10.

In order to lead a healthy life, a person should enjoy physical, mental and social well-being. If a person lacks any one of them, then that person is suffering from _________.


Answer:

disease


The word ‘disease’ means “without ease or not at ease”. It is opposite to the state of physical and mental and social well-being. When our body organs not functioning properly due any reason is called disease. There are numerous diseases that affect our health.



Question 11.

A child eats food rich in carbohydrates and avoids protein in its diet. Which type of nutritional deficiency will affect that child?
A. Kwashiorkar

B. Nyctalopia

C. Diabetes

D. Down syndrome


Answer:

To maintain good health one should eat a diet which contains all essential nutrients in correct proportion. Deficiency of protein in food causes Kwashiorkar. In this disease the child develops an enlarged belly with face and feet swelling.



Question 12.

Assertion (A) Expulsion of excess unused glucose in the blood through urine is observed in a diabetic mellitus person.

Reason (R): insulin is not produced in sufficient quantity by pancreas.

A. Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true and ‘R’ explains ‘A’.

B. Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true but ‘R’ doesn’t explain ‘A’.

C. Only ‘A’ is true but ‘R’ is false.

D. A is false but ‘R’ is true.


Answer:

Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which excess of unused glucose from the blood is excreted in the urine. Less secretion of insulin does not converts glucose into glycogen. High glucose in blood cause diabetes.



Part-b
Question 1.

Marasmus and Kwashiorkar are both protein deficiency defects. Marasmus differs from Kwashiorkar in enlarged belly and swelling in the face. Are these symptoms for the above diseases correct? If not, correct it.


Answer:

No, these symptoms are not correct. In Marasmus, the child loses weight and suffers severe diarrhoea and it will appear as though bones are covered by skin. In Kwashiorkar, the child develops an enlarged belly with face and feet swelling.





Question 2.

A list of disorders are given below. Pick out the odd one out and give reasons.

(Thalassemia, haemophilia, night blindness, albinism, sickle cell anaemia)


Answer:

Night blindness


Night blindness is a symptom of a disease called Nyctalopia. This disease occurs due to the deficiency of vitamin A. A person who is suffering from this disease is unable to see things in the night. Thalassemia, haemophilia, albinism, and sickle cell anaemia are genetic disorders.



Question 3.

What are the symptoms of common cold?

i) ____________________

ii) ____________________


Answer:

Common cold is a viral disease. Symptoms of common cold are:

1. Inflammation of upper respiratory (nasal passage) and nasal epithelium.


2. Flow of mucus from the nose.


3. Headache and mild fever are other symptoms.



Question 4.

Differentiate between the diseases-night blindness and colour blindness.


Answer:




Question 5.

After observing dark patches with itching sensation on the skin of a student in a school hostel, the warden advises his roommates not to share towels, clothes and combs among themselves. Name the disease the student is suffering from and name the causative organisms.


Answer:

The disease from which the student suffering from is ringworm. Ringworm is caused by three different fungus. These are Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton.




Question 6.

Name the vector host of the malarial parasite. Mention the species of malarial parasite which causes malignant and fatal malaria.


Answer:

• The vector (organism that carries germs) of malaria is the female Anopheles mosquito.


• Malaria is caused by a parasite, Plasmodium. Its three species cause malaria.


• Out of three species Plasmodium falciparum causes malignant and fatal (dangerous and death causing) malaria.



Question 7.

Name the tests done for the diagnosis and confirmation of AIDS.


Answer:

Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS is caused by Human Immuno

Deficiency Virus (HIV). It is a dreadful disease. The test for AIDS are:


i. Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA)


ii. Western Blot – a confirmatory test.



Question 8.

What is triple antigen? Name the three diseases which, can be prevented by using it.


Answer:

Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus


Vaccine (Triple antigen) Triple Antigen Injection or vaccine is given to children and infants for the active immunisation against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DPT).



Question 9.

Mention the type of immunity acquired by a baby through breast-feeding.


Answer:

Mother’s milk contains antibodies which enters the child. Hence, mother’s milk provides Naturally Passive Acquired Immunity.



Question 10.

Study the following statements and state whether they are true or false.

i) Colour blindness is a genetic disorder, whereas night blindness is a nutritional disorder.

ii) Pernicious anaemia is a nutritional deficiency disease, whereas sickle cell anaemia is a genetic disease / disorder.

iii) Administering TT injection to an injured child is related to passive artificial immunity, whereas giving BCG vaccine is active artificial immunity.

iv) Malaria is a bacterial disease, whereas ring worm is a viral disease.


Answer:

i) True


Colour blindness is a genetic disorder, whereas night blindness is a nutritional disorder. Night blindness is caused due to deficiency of vitamin A. Colour blindness is a genetic disorder caused due to defective gene.


ii) True.


Pernicious anaemia is caused due to deficiency of iron, whereas sickle cell anaemia is occur due to defective red blood cells.


iii) False.


Administering TT injection to an injured child to protect from tetanus toxoid and BCG vaccine is given to protect from tuberculosis. Both of these vaccination provide artificial active acquired immunity.


iv)False.


Malaria is a disease caused by a protozoa, named Plasmodium whereas ring worm is caused by a fungus.



Question 11.

Ramya is suffering from bleeding gums and loosening teeth. On diagnosis, it was found to have been caused by vitamin deficiency.

Tell Ramya the vitamin that is lacking in her food ____caused by _______, the name of deficiency disease she is suffering from ___________.


Answer:

Vitamin C is lacking in her food. She is suffering from the disease Scurvy, which is characterised by bleeding gums and loosening of teeth.



Question 12.

Match B and C with A:



Answer:




Question 13.

A health worker advises the people in a locality not to have tattooing done using common needles and to insist the barber to change the shaving razors/ blades in the salon. Name the dreadful disease, the spreading of which, can be prevented by following these measures. Also mention other preventive measures that can be taken with regard to this disease.


Answer:

Using common needle may infected with HIV can transmitted (pass) it to the healthy person causing Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Hence, avoid tattooing using a common needle.


The other preventives measures can be taken to prevent transmission of HIV:


a. Safe sex practices


b. Screening of blood for HIV before giving blood to the patient.


c. Usage of disposable syringes in the hospitals.


d. Avoid sharing the razors and blades in the salon



Question 14.

Match the following:



Answer:




Question 15.

List out the diseases based on their mode of transmission (water borne, air borne, and sexual contact)

i) cholera ii) typhoid

iii) tuberculosis iv) leprosy v) syphilis

vi) gonorrhoea vii) pneumonia

viii) common cold ix) amoebic dysentery x) AIDS


Answer:

i) Cholera. It is an airborne disease spread through droplet discharged from the infected person during talking, laughing and sneezing


ii) Typhoid is a waterborne disease and it spread through food and water contaminated with the germ.


iii) Tuberculosis it is airborne, a large number of bacteria are expelled through the sputum of the patients while eating, sneezing, talking, laughing and so on.


iv) Leprosy spreads person to person by nasal secretions or droplets.


v) Syphilis spreads through sexual contact from infected person.


vi) Gonorrhoea spreads through sexual contact from infected person.


vii) Pneumonia is an airborne disease spread through droplet discharged from the infected person during talking, laughing and sneezing


viii) Common cold is an airborne and spread through droplet discharged from the infected person during talking, laughing and sneezing.


ix) Amoebic dysentery is a water-borne and food-borne disease. Houseflies act as mechanical carriers.


x) AIDS spreads through sexual contact from infected person.



Question 16.

i) Give any three examples for the most infectious diseases in man and their causative agents.

ii) To discover medicine for viral infected diseases like AIDS is more difficult than other diseases. Is the statement true or false? Discuss.


Answer:

i) Examples for the most infectious diseases:


Influenza is caused by A (H1N1) Virus, is highly contagious (infectious),


Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium, a rod-shaped bacterium.


Typhoid is caused by a short rod-shaped bacterium with numerous flagella Salmonella typhi.


ii) Antibiotics are useless against viral infections. This is because viruses are so simple that they use the energy of the host cells to perform their activities. Hence, antibiotics do not work for them.



Question 17.

A student had an attack of measles and recovered from the infection. His science teacher said that he will not get that disease again in his life time. Is it true? Why?


Answer:

Yes, it because he developed immunity during the first infection of measles virus. The antibodies produced in the blood remain for a long period and kill the similar pathogens, whenever they enter the body. If the antibody production is stimulated naturally after recovering from a disease, it is called Naturally Active Acquired Immunity



Question 18.

Name the causative organisms responsible for ring worm in humans? Mention the symptoms of the infection.


Answer:

Ringworm is caused by three different genera of fungi namely, Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton.

Symptoms of ringworms:


Fungi can live on the dead cells of epidermis. They cause superficial infections in skin, hair, nail, etc. form patches and cause itching.



Question 19.

Pick out the odd ones:

i) AIDS: Retro virus, lymphocytes, BCG, ELISA

ii) Bacterial disease: Rabies, cholera, common cold, influenza

iii) DPT vaccine: Diphtheria, tuberculosis, pertusis, tetanus

iv) Infective stage of Plasmodium in humans: Sporozoites, merozoites, trophozoites, gametocytes.

v) Mental dimension: brightness of skin, normal metabolism, no black rings around eyes, knows his capacity.


Answer:

i) BCG

BCG is a vaccine which protects against tuberculosis.


ii) Cholera


Common cold, influenza and rabies are viral disease.


iii) Tuberculosis


DPT vaccine protects against Diphtheria, pertusis and tetanus, not against tuberculosis.


iv) Sporozoites.


Infective stage of Plasmodium in humans are sporozoites and in in female anopheles are gametocytes.


v) Knows his capacity.


Mental dimension is one of the dimensions of personal health in which a person knows his capacity it means he or she do not overestimate or underestimate.



Question 20.

In the manufacturing of anti-venom injection against snake bite, antibodies produced in the horse are being used. Mention the type of immunity involved.


Answer:

Giving readymade antibody (produced in some other animal and extracted) to an individual artificially to achieve immunity. This type of immunity is called Artificial Passive Acquired Immunity. This immunity is not permanent.



Question 21.

Say whether each of the following diseases is a metabolic disorder, a genetic disorder or a nutritional deficiency disease.

i) thalassemia

ii) beriberi

iii) diabetes mellitus

iv) bubble boy syndrome

v) scurvy

vi) marasmus

vii) obesity

viii) Alzheimer’s disease

ix) nyctalopia

x) haemophilia


Answer:

i) Thalassemia is a genetic disorder caused due to defective gene.


ii) Beri-beri is vitamin deficiency disease caused due to deficiency of vitamin B1.


iii) Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder caused due to high glucose in blood due to insulin imbalance.


iv) Bubble boy syndrome is a genetic disorder caused due to defective gene.


v) Scurvy is a vitamin deficiency disease caused due to deficiency of vitamin C.


vi) Marasmus is a nutritional deficiency disease caused due to deficiency of protein in the food.


vii) Obesity is a metabolic disorder caused due to intake high glucose contains food.


viii) Alzheimer’s disease is a metabolic disorder caused due to death of brain cells.


ix) Nyctalopia is a vitamin deficiency disease caused due to deficiency of vitamin A.


x) Haemophilia is a genetic disorder caused due to defective gene.



Question 22.

Find the correct statement (True / False):

i) Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria.

ii) Typhoid is caused by Trichophyton fungi.

iii) Malaria is caused by Plasmodium vivax.

iv) Influenza is caused by Entamoeba histolytica protozoan.


Answer:

i) Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. True.


ii) Typhoid is caused by Trichophyton fungi. False. Typhoid is caused by bacterium Salmonella typhi.


iii) Malaria is caused by Plasmodium vivax. True.


iv) Influenza is caused by Entamoeba histolytica protozoan. False. Influenza is caused by A(H1N1) Virus.



Question 23.

Malarial fever is not caused in a person immediately after introducing the sporozoites by an infected anopheles mosquito. Why?


Answer:

When female anopheles mosquitoes bite a healthy person, the sporozoites (the infectious stage) are introduced into his body. Sporozoites multiply within the liver cells first and enter the Red Blood Cells (RBC) of man, resulting in the rupture of RBC. This results in the release of toxic substance called haemozoin which is responsible for the chill and high fever, recurring every three to four days.



Question 24.

Name the stages of Plasmodium.

i) introduced by an infected Anopheles mosquito.

ii) picked up by Anopheles mosquito from an infected human being.


Answer:

i) Sporozoite stage: When female anopheles mosquitoes bite a healthy person, the sporozoites (the infectious stage) are introduced into the human body.


Gametocytic stage: when female anopheles bites infected person and sucks blood along with gametocytes.



Question 25.

Name two diseases that are transmitted by houseflies. Mention their causative pathogens.


Answer:

The diseases that are transmitted by houseflies are


• Typhoid which is caused by a short rod-shaped bacterium called Salmonella typhi.


• Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite.



Question 26.

Observe the following flow-chart



Mention the metabolic disorder ‘X’ and the causative factor from the options given below:



Answer:

b) Diabetes mellitus – deficiency of insulin hormone


When high quantities of glucose enter the blood stream, the excess glucose is converted into insoluble glycogen and is stored in liver and muscles for future use. All these processes are controlled by the hormones, insulin and glucagon. If insulin is not produced in sufficient quantity, excess of sugar cannot be stored in the liver and cannot be utilized. As a result, sugar gets accumulated in the blood and is subsequently expelled through the urine. This results in diabetes mellitus.




Part-c
Question 1.

Kala has delivered a baby,

i) Suggest the immunization schedule for the baby, in the first six months.

ii) What are the diseases that can be cured as per the schedule?


Answer:

Immunization schedule for the baby in first 6 months.



ii) BCG vaccine protects from tuberculosis. DPT vaccine protects from Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus. Polio vaccine protects from polio.



Question 2.

There is a widespread outbreak of malaria in your area.

i) Suggest some controlling measures to the local authorities concerned.

ii) Pick out the right symptom for malaria.

(chills, shivering and a rise in temperature, diarrhoea )


Answer:

i) Some controlling measures on outbreak of malaria are


a. Sanitary measures include ground fogging with disinfectants.


b. Prevent water stagnation and cover ditches and drains.


c. Use mosquito nets and mosquito repellents.


ii) Chills, shivering and mild fever are the symptoms of malaria.



Question 3.

15th October is observed as ‘World Hand washing Day’.

i) Tell your friend the effects of hand washing.

ii) How frequently do you wash your hands everyday and when?


Answer:

i) Our hands are contaminated with disease-causing bacteria and viruses, these pathogens can enter the body or pass from one person to another to cause disease. Hand washing with soap prevents many common and dangerous infections such as diarrhea and pneumonia.


ii) Many illnesses start when hands become contaminated with disease-causing bacteria and viruses. This can happen after using the toilet, contact with a child’s excreta, coughing, sneezing, touching other people’s hands, and touching other contaminated surfaces. Whenever your hand is contaminated with touching contaminated surface, hands should be washed properly.



Question 4.

What is immunity? Write a note on the various types of immunity.


Answer:

• Immunity is the ability of the body to fight against diseases.


• Infectious organisms that enters the body and produces toxins.


• These toxins are called antigens.


• The immune system of our body includes blood plasma, lymph and lymphocytes.


• These cells analyse the antigens and produce suitable protein substances called antibodies to kill the antigen in order to develop immunity.


Types of Immunity:


i) Natural or Innate Immunity: immunity present in the body since birth.


ii) Acquired or Specific Immunity: The immunity developed after birth against some


• Active acquired immunity: This kind of immunity is developed by our body, during the first infection of any pathogen. The antibodies produced in the blood remain for a long period and kill the similar pathogens.


• Passive Acquired Immunity: In this type of immunity, a ready-made antibody is given to develop immunity is introduced from outside, instead of stimulating the body to produce antibody with antigenic stimulus.



Question 5.

Describe the life-cycle of plasmodium in man.


Answer:

The asexual life cycle of Plasmodium occurs in humans. It begins with a bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. When these mosquitoes bite a healthy person, the sporozoites of plasmodium present in the salivary glands of female anopheles are introduced into his body. They multiply within the liver cells first and enter the Red Blood Cells (RBC) of man, resulting in the rupture of RBC. This results in the release of toxic substance called haemozoin which is responsible for the chill and high fever, recurring every three to four days.