Direct and Indirect Speech


Direct and Indirect Speech

When using indirect or reported speech, the form changes. Usually indirect speech is introduced by the verb said, as in I said, Bill said, or they said. Using the verb say in this tense, indicates that something was said in the past. In these cases, the main verb in the reported sentence is put in the past. If the main verb is already in a past tense, then the tense changes to another past tense; it can almost be seen as moving even further into the past.

Verb tense changes also characterize other situations using indirect speech. Note the changes shown in the chart and see the table below for examples. With indirect speech, the use of that is optional.


Direct Speech
Þ
Indirect Speech
simple present
He said, “I go to school every day.”
Þ
simple past
He said (that) he went to school every day.
simple past 
He said, “I went to school every day.”
Þ
past perfect
He said (that) he had gone to school every day.
present perfect 
He said, “I have gone to school every day.”
Þ
past perfect 
He said (that) he had gone to school every day.
present progressive
He said, “I am going to school every day.”
Þ
past progressive
He said (that) he was going to school every day.
past progressive
He said, “I was going to school every day.”
Þ
perfect progressive
He said (that) he had been going to school every day,
future (will)
He said, “I will go to school every day.”
Þ
would + verb name
He said (that) he would go to school every day.
future (going to)
He said, “I am going to school every day.”
Þ
present progressive
He said (that) he is going to school every day.

past progressive
He said (that) he was going to school every day
Direct Speech
Þ
Indirect Speech
auxiliary + verb name
He said, “Do you go to school every day?”
He said, “Where do you go to school?”
Þ
simple past
He asked me if I went to school every day.*
He asked me where I went to school.
imperative
He said, “Go to school every day.”
Þ
infinitive
He said to go to school every day.

*Note than when a Yes/No question is being asked in direct speech, then a construction with if or whetheris used. If a WH question is being asked, then use the WH to introduce the clause. Also note that with indirect speech, these are examples of embedded questions.
The situation changes if instead of the common said another part of the very to say is used. In that case the verb tenses usually remain the same. Some examples of this situation are given below.

Direct Speech
Þ
Indirect Speech
simple present + simple present
He says, “I go to school every day.”
Þ
simple present + simple present
He says (that) he goes to school every day.
present perfect + simple present
He has said, “I go to school every day.”
Þ
present perfect + simple present
He has said (that) he goes to school every day.
past progressive + simple past
He was saying, “I went to school every day.”
Þ
past progressive + simple past
He was saying (that) he went to school every day.

past progressive + past perfect
He was saying (that) he had gone to school every day.
future + simple present
He will say, “I go to school every day.”
Þ
future + simple present
He will say (that) he goes to school every day.

Another situation is the one in which modal constructions are used. If the verb said is used, then the form of the modal, or another modal that has a past meaning is used.
 Direct Speech
Þ
Indirect Speech
can
He said, “I can go to school every day.”
Þ
could
He said (that) he could go to school every day.
may
He said, “I may go to school every day.”
Þ
might
He said (that) he might go to school every day.
might
He said, “I might go to school every day.”


must
He said, “I must go to school every day.”
Þ
had to
He said (that) he had to go to school every day.
have to
He said, “I have to go to school every day.”


should
He said, “I should go to school every day.”
Þ
should
He said (that) he should go to school every day.
ought to
He said, “I ought to go to school every day.”
Þ
ought to
He said (that) he ought to go to school every day.

No comments:

PDF FILE TO YOUR EMAIL IMMEDIATELY PURCHASE NOTES & PAPER SOLUTION. @ Rs. 50/- each (GST extra)

HINDI ENTIRE PAPER SOLUTION

MARATHI PAPER SOLUTION

SSC MATHS I PAPER SOLUTION

SSC MATHS II PAPER SOLUTION

SSC SCIENCE I PAPER SOLUTION

SSC SCIENCE II PAPER SOLUTION

SSC ENGLISH PAPER SOLUTION

SSC & HSC ENGLISH WRITING SKILL

HSC ACCOUNTS NOTES

HSC OCM NOTES

HSC ECONOMICS NOTES

HSC SECRETARIAL PRACTICE NOTES

2019 Board Paper Solution

HSC ENGLISH SET A 2019 21st February, 2019

HSC ENGLISH SET B 2019 21st February, 2019

HSC ENGLISH SET C 2019 21st February, 2019

HSC ENGLISH SET D 2019 21st February, 2019

SECRETARIAL PRACTICE (S.P) 2019 25th February, 2019

HSC XII PHYSICS 2019 25th February, 2019

CHEMISTRY XII HSC SOLUTION 27th, February, 2019

OCM PAPER SOLUTION 2019 27th, February, 2019

HSC MATHS PAPER SOLUTION COMMERCE, 2nd March, 2019

HSC MATHS PAPER SOLUTION SCIENCE 2nd, March, 2019

SSC ENGLISH STD 10 5TH MARCH, 2019.

HSC XII ACCOUNTS 2019 6th March, 2019

HSC XII BIOLOGY 2019 6TH March, 2019

HSC XII ECONOMICS 9Th March 2019

SSC Maths I March 2019 Solution 10th Standard11th, March, 2019

SSC MATHS II MARCH 2019 SOLUTION 10TH STD.13th March, 2019

SSC SCIENCE I MARCH 2019 SOLUTION 10TH STD. 15th March, 2019.

SSC SCIENCE II MARCH 2019 SOLUTION 10TH STD. 18th March, 2019.

SSC SOCIAL SCIENCE I MARCH 2019 SOLUTION20th March, 2019

SSC SOCIAL SCIENCE II MARCH 2019 SOLUTION, 22nd March, 2019

XII CBSE - BOARD - MARCH - 2019 ENGLISH - QP + SOLUTIONS, 2nd March, 2019


BUY FROM PLAY STORE

DOWNLOAD OUR APP


HOW TO PURCHASE OUR NOTES?



S.P. Important Questions For Board Exam 2020


O.C.M. Important Questions for Board Exam. 2020


Economics Important Questions for Board Exam 2020


Chemistry Important Question Bank for board exam 2020


Physics – Section I- Important Question Bank for Maharashtra Board HSC Examination


Physics – Section II – Science- Important Question Bank for Maharashtra Board HSC 2020 Examination


MUST REMEMBER THINGS on the day of Exam


Are you prepared? for English Grammar in Board Exam.


Paper Presentation In Board Exam


How to Score Good Marks in SSC Board Exams


Tips To Score More Than 90% Marks In 12th Board Exam


How to write English exams?


How to prepare for board exam when less time is left


How to memorise what you learn for board exam


No. 1 Simple Hack, you can try out, in preparing for Board Exam

How to Study for CBSE Class 10 Board Exams Subject Wise Tips?

JEE Main 2020 Registration Process – Exam Pattern & Important Dates

NEET UG 2020 Registration Process Exam Pattern & Important Dates

How can One Prepare for two Competitive Exams at the same time?

8 Proven Tips to Handle Anxiety before Exams!