The Parts of Speech
A noun: any word which names a person, place, thing, idea, animal, quality, or action.
- Count Nouns: anything which can be counted; singular and plural
Example: car - cars
- Mass Nouns: entities which cannot be counted; they have no plural form.
- Collective Nouns: groups of people or things; sing. and plural.
Example: herd - herds
- Possessive Nouns: express ownership by adding an apostrophe.
Examples: (singular.) Kelly's anger (plural.) birds' feathers
A pronoun: a word which takes the place of a noun (called "the antecedent")
- Personal: they refer to person/people speaking, spoken to or spoken about.
Examples: I, me, you, he, him, she, her, it, we, us, they .
- Possessive: they function independently; they show possession.
Examples: my, mine, your, yours, our, ours, his, her, hers .
- Indefinite: they have no specific antecedents.
Examples: another, both, everything, nothing
- Reflexive: they show that the subject performs actions to/for itself
Examples: myself, yourself, itself, ourselves, themselves
- Intensive: they refer back to a noun/pronoun to add emphasis to it
Examples: (same forms as reflexive pronouns)
- Reciprocal: they show a mutual action or relationship
Examples: each other, one another
- Interrogative: they are used to ask a question
Examples: who, which, what
- Relative: they are used to introduce a relative clause
Examples: who, which, that
- Demonstrative: they substitute for specific nouns
Examples: this, that, these, those
A verb: expresses action or state of being
- Transitive: it is an action verb; it passes action on to a direct object
Example: We bought a car.
- Intransitive: it does not indicate a transfer of action; it does not require a direct object
Example: The eagle soared.
- Linking: it joins the subject with a word that renames/describes it
Example: The sky is blue.
- Main: it indicates the primary activity
- Auxiliary: "helps" the main verb
- Modal: indicates ability, obligation, permission, possibility
Examples: can, may, must, should, could, might, ought, would
- Finite: it describes a definite and limited action or condition
- Non-finite/Verbal: shows an unfinished action or condition
- Infinitives: to + verb; act as nouns, adjectives, adverbs
- Participles: past or present; always act as adjectives
- Gerunds: present participle form; act as nouns
An adjective: modifies nouns and pronouns
- Descriptive: it names a quality of the noun
- Attributive: Eg. The brown cow.
- Predicate: Eg. It was a brown cow.
- Definite/Indefinite Articles: Eg. the, a, an
- Possessive: Eg. his, her, its, their
- Demonstrative: Eg. this, that, these, those
- Indefinite: Eg. several, few, less, many, more
- Interrogative: Eg. what, which, whose
- Cardinal: Eg. one, two, four
- Ordinal: Eg. third, fourth, fiftieth
- Nouns: Eg. the milk cow
- Proper: Eg. the German cow
An adverb: modifies verbs, adjectives, adverbs, sentences
A preposition: links a noun or a pronoun (the object of the preposition) with some other word or expression.
A conjunction : links sentence elements, ie. words, phrases, clauses
- Coordinating : it joins sentence parts of equal grammatical status
Examples: and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet
- Correlative: they are coordinating conjunctions that work in pairs; they join words, phrases, clauses, sentences.
Examples: both...and, either...or, neither...nor
- Subordinating: they connect clauses of unequal status
An interjection is an unusual kind of word, because it often stands alone. Interjections are words which express emotion or surprise, and they are usually followed by exclamation marks.
- The clown chased a dog around the ring and then fell flat on her face.
- The geese indolently waddled across the intersection.
- Yikes! I'm late for class.
- Bruno's shabby thesaurus tumbled out of the book bag when the bus suddenly pulled out into traffic.
- Mr. Frederick angrily stamped out the fire that the local hooligans had started on his verandah.
- Later that summer, she asked herself, "What was I thinking of?"
- She thought that the twenty zucchini plants would not be enough so she planted another ten.
- Although she gave hundreds of zucchini away, the enormous mound left over frightened her.
- Everywhere she went, she talked about the prolific veggies.
- The manager confidently made his presentation to the board of directors.
- Frankenstein is the name of the scientist, not the monster.
- Her greatest fear is that the world will end before she finds a comfortable pair of panty-hose.
- That suitcase is hers.
- Everyone in the room cheered when the announcement was made.
- The sun was shining as we set out for our first winter camping trip.
- Small children often insist that they can do it by themselves.
- Dust covered every surface in the locked bedroom.
- The census taker knocked loudly on all the doors but nobody was home.
- They wondered if there truly was honour among thieves.
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
2.5. An Adjective
2.6. An Adverb
6- He gave me his phone number but I lost it.
10-The day was completely enjoyable.
- we do not normally use a/an in front of it: sugar is expensive.
- it does not normally have a plural and it can be used in the question How much? How much meat /oil? - A lot of meat/ A little oil.
- we cannot normally use a number (one, two) in front of it.
- Recognized containers for things. Compare:
- A type, brand of things. Compare:
- A particular example of a physical or concrete thing. Compare: