ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR BOARD EXAM


  • Present Tense Sentences
·      Simple
·      Continuous
·      Perfect
·      Perfect Continuous

1. Simple Present Tense Sentences
[3rd Person + Present tense + Singular → Verb + s]
1.       I go to college.
2.       I read a lesson.
3.       I eat an apple.
4.       Raja sings a song.
5.       Sun rises in the east.
6.       Sun sets in the west.
7.       They jump.
8.       He opens the door.
9.       You run away.
10.    He runs away.
11.    He walks to the garden.

2. Present Continuous Tense Sentences

is → singular
am → I
are → plural

  1. I am speaking.
  2. Raju is eating.
  3. You are sleeping.
  4. They are watching T.V.
  5. We are playing food ball.

3. Present Perfect Tense Sentences.

  1. I have cut my nose.
  2. I have given money.
  3. I have a house
  4. We have brought.
  5. He has sent it.
  6. She has sunk.
  7. It has broken.
  8. They have taken.
4. Present Perfect continuous Tense Sentences.

  1. I have been giving money.
  2. I have been listening music.
  3. She has been reading.
  4. He has been running.
  5. They have been watching movie.

  • Past Tense Sentences
·      Simple
·      Continuous
·      Perfect
·      Perfect Continuous

1. Simple Past Tense Sentences

  1. I went to college.
  2. I read a lesson.
  3. I ate an apple.
  4. Raja sang a song.
  5. I studied the lesson.
  6. He opened the door.
  7. You run away.
  8. Dog barked.
  9. I saw a book.
  10. He came from school.
  11. He said to Raja.
  12. I received a message.
  13. Raja danced beautifully.
  14. They worked hard.
  15. You caught.

2. Past Continuous Tense Sentences.

  1. I was speaking
  2. Raju was sending.
  3. You were teaching.
  4. They were coming.
  5. We were dancing.
  6. He was thinking.

3. Past Perfect Tense Sentences.

1.       The sun had set.
2.       The show had begun.
3.       I had cut my hair.

4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense sentences.

  1. I had been eating.
  2. I had been listening.
  3. She had been running.
  4. They had been reading.
  5. You had been jumping.

  • Future Tense Sentences
·      Simple
·      Continuous
·      Perfect
·      Perfect Continuous

1. Simple Future Tense Sentences.

  1. I shall go to college.
  2. I shall study tomorrow.
  3. We shall come.
  4. You will run.
  5. He will open.
  6. She will sing.
  7. We shall eat.
  8. It will come.
  9. Raju will sing.
  10. Raja sill come.

2. Future Continuous Tense Sentences.

  1. He will be eating.
  2. I shall be going.
  3. They will be dancing.
  4. They will be going.
  5. Raja will be acting.
  6. We shall be singing.
  7. Rose will be winning the race.

3. Future Perfect Tense Sentences.

  1. I shall have eaten tomorrow.
  2. I shall have written my exercise.
  3. They will have broken the car.
  4. We will have known.
  5. We shall have gone tomorrow.

4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense Sentences.

  1. I shall have been eating.
  2. Raju will have been reading.
  3. Raja will have been studying.
  4. They will have been writing.
  5. Raja will have been doing.







I. Use able to / unable to

Can = Present Tense
Could = Past Tense

1. I can play. (Use able to)
Ans. I am able to play.

2. I could play (Use able to)
Ans. I was able to play.

3. He could tell me. (Use able to)
Ans. He was able to tell me.

4. They could tell me. (Use able to)
Ans. They were able to tell me.

5. She can work. (Use able to)
Ans. She is able to work.

6. I can write a letter.
Ans. I am able to write a letter.

7. She could eat a mango.
Ans. She was able to eat a mango.

8. She could not eat sandwich.
Ans. She was unable to eat sandwich.

9. I cannot dance.
Ans. I am unable to dance.

10. I cannot write an essay.
Ans. I am unable to write an essay.

II. Remove too

too very, excessively, extremely
too ……to…… so …… that ……cannot/ could not
Present tense, is, am, are cannot.
Past tense, was, were could not.

1. It is too hot outside.
Ans. It is very hot outside.

2. These books are too expensive.
Ans. These books are very expensive.

3. Raja is too fond of sweets.
Ans. Raja is extremely fond of sweets.

4. It is too sour.
Ans. IT is very sour.

5. The king was too infallible (perfect) to make a mistake.
Ans. The king was so infallible that he could not make a mistake.  

6. I am too tired to think of anything.
Ans. I am so tired that I cannot think of anything.

7. He spoke too fast to be understood.
Ans. He spoke so fast that one could not understand.

8. He is too proud to beg.
Ans. He is so proud that he cannot beg.

9. Hitler was too cruel to spare the Jews.
Ans. Hitler was so cruel that he could not spare the Jews.

10. The Chief Minister Mr. Raja was too busy to give us an appointment.
Ans. The Chief Minister Mr. Raja was so busy that he could not give us an appointment.

11. Parents now days are too busy to pay attention to their children education.
Ans. Parents now days are so busy that they cannot pay attention to their children education.

12. It became too dark to read easily.
Ans. It became so dark that one could not read easily.

13. I too won a ticket to go to cinema.
Ans. I also won a ticket to go to cinema.

14. He too got it right.
Ans. He also got it right.

III. Make sentences using the given words as noun as well as verbs.

Noun = Name of place, animal, things.
Verbs = Action.

  1. Hand
  2. Can
  3. Lock
  4. Cook
  5. Work
  6. Visit
  7. Name
  8. Right
  9. Hold
  10. Return
  11. Offer
  12. Look
  13. Shop
  14. Produce
  15. Form
  16. Try
  17. lead
·         Hand me the towel. (verb)
·         Aishwarya’s hand is beautiful. (noun)
·         You can do this. (verb)
·         The can is full of water. (Noun)
·         Lock the door, before you leave. (verb)
·         Key is with the lock. (noun)
·         My mother cooks food. (verb)
·         He is a popular cook. (noun)
·         He works in call centre. (verb)
·         I have lot of work to do. (noun)
·         He visits to the zoo. (verb)
·         He earned good name. (Noun)
·         I name this cat. (verb)
·         Right the correct one. (verb)
·         Take right. (noun)
·         Hold the pen. (verb)
·         I didn’t have any hold. (noun)
·         I return the book. (verb)
·         I have no return. (noun)
·         The companies offer discount. (verb)
·         It is a good offer. (noun)
·         I am looking you. (verb)
·         Your look is beautiful. (noun)
·         Raja shops vegetables. (verb)
·         He opened the shop. (noun)
·         Ragavan produced a film. (verb)
·         The farmers store their produce. (noun)
·          Ambani formed a company. (verb)
·         I am unable to fill the form. (noun)
·         I tried a lot. (verb)
·         He gave it a last try. (noun)
·         He leads me in the race. (verb)
·         Lead is a metal. (noun)

1.       I decided to take a calligraphy class. (Use noun form of the underlined word and rewrite)
Ans. I took a decision to take a calligraphy class.
2.       My doctor advised me to go home. (Use noun form of the underlined word and rewrite)
Ans. My  doctor’s advice for me was to go home.
3.       At that moment my spirit revolted. (Use noun form of the underlined word and rewrite)
Ans. At that moment there was a revolution in my spirit. 

IV. Opposites with Prefixed and suffixes.

  1. able x unable (prefix)
  2. complete x incomplete
  3. proper x improper
  4. guide x misguide
  5. regular x irregular
  6. ordinary x extraordinary
  7. social x anti – social
  8. legal x illegal
  9. encourage x discourage
  10. interior x exterior
  11. agree x disagree
  12. careful x careless (suffix)
  13. fearful x fearless
  14. appear x disappear
  15. direct x indirect
  16. perfect x imperfect
  17. septic x antiseptic
  18. ability x inability
  19. useful x useless
  20. important x unimportant
  21. call x miscall
  22. national x international
  23. correct x incorrect
  24. pure x impure
  25. obey x disobey
  26. understand x misunderstand
  27. literate x illiterate
  28. war x antiwar
  29. clear x unclear
  30. willing  x unwilling
  31. pleasant x unpleasant
  32. romantic x unromantic
  33. developed x undeveloped
  34. equal x unequal
  35. definite x indefinite
  36. aware x unaware
  37. respect x disrespect
  38. patient  x impatient
  39. responsible x irresponsible
  40. lock x unlock
  41. cyclone x anti – cyclone
  42. like x dislike
  43. continue x discontinue
  44. restless x restful
  45. justice x injustice
  46. experienced x inexperienced
  47. valuable x valueless
  48. successful x unsuccessful
  49. necessary x unnecessary
  50. maximum x minimum
  51. powerful x powerless
  52. sensitive x insensitive
  53. vegetarian x non vegetarian
  54. reserved x unreserved
  55. kind x unkind
  56. friendly x unfriendly
  57. advantage x disadvantage
  58. connect x disconnect
  59. give x receive
  60. normal x abnormal
V. Affirmative and negative sentences

1. I like to go to the seashore. (Make it negative.)
Ans. I don’t dislike going to the seashore.

2. He likes to go to the seashore.
Ans. He don’t dislike going to the seashore.

3. They like to go to the seashore.
Ans. They don’t dislike going to the seashore.

4. It is useless.
Ans. It is not useful.

5. There is little hurry.
Ans. There is no hurry.

6. He had only his daughter with him.
Ans. He had no one except his daughter with him.

7. I do not remember. (Make it affirmative)
Ans. I fail to remember.

8. I did not remember.
Ans. I failed to remember.

9. She does not remember.
Ans. She fails to remember.

10. It was never heard of in the history of Mumbai.
Ans. This was the first time in the history of Mumbai that it had been heard of.

11. David grew up considering blindness no tragedy.
Ans. David grew up without ever considering blindness a tragedy.

12. They had always fallen into the realm of possibility.
Ans. They had never fallen into the realm of impossibility.

13. David’s ambition to become a doctor was not in that realm.
Ans. David’s ambition to become a doctor was beyond that realm.

14. He was no different from anyone else.
Ans. He was like everyone else

15. You’ll never know unless you try.”
Ans. You’ll only know if you try.

16. It’s likely no personal computer would have them.
Ans. It’s likely all personal computer would be without them.

17. You are fortunate and yet you cannot understand your fortune. (remove negative)
Ans. You are fortunate and yet you are unable to understand your fortune.

18. Abyss cannot head the song of the stars. (Remove negative and rewrite)
Ans. Abyss is unable to hear the song of the stars.

19. His replies did not gladden our heart at the time.
Ans. His replies failed to gladden our hearts at the time.

20. It didn’t halve our time exactly.
Ans. It failed to halve our time.


.VI. Question Tag.

1. I am in mood.
Ans. I am in mood, aren’t I?

2. Let’s go for picnic.
Ans. Let’s go for picnic, shall we?

3. Let us go for cinema.
Ans. Let us go for cinema, shall we?

4. They always come in time.
Ans. They always come in time, don’t they?

5. We sit here every day.
Ans. We sit here every day, don’t we?

6. Vijay comes here right at 5.
Ans. Vijay comes here right at 5, doesn’t he?

7. They reached here yesterday.
Ans. They reached here yesterday, didn’t they?

8. That girl got the prize.
Ans. That girl got the prize, didn’t she?

9. I am not tired.
Ans. I am not tired, am I?

10. He does not attend the school.
Ans. He does not attend the school, does he?

11. Ranji never mixes with her classmates.
Ans. Ranji never mixes with her classmates, does she?

12. You should not blame him.
Ans. You should not blame him, should you?

13. I shall go to school.
Ans. I shall go to school, shan’t I?

14. We are not telling the truth.
Ans. We are not telling the truth, are we?

15. He will go to school.
Ans. He will go to school, won’t he?

16. Bring me food.
Ans. Bring me food, will you?

17. Show me your pen.
Ans. Show me your pen, will you?

18. Stay there.
Ans. Stay there, will you?

19. Open the door.
Ans. Open the door, will you?

20. Both he and David grinned.
Ans. Both he and David grinned, didn’t they?

21. You’ll never know unless your try.
Ans. You’ll never know unless you try, will you?

22. Allow me to be a rose for one day.
Ans. Allow me to be a rose for one day, won’t you?

23. At that moment my spirit revolted.
Ans. At that moment my spirit revolted, didn’t it?

24. There has been no sign of improvement in the patient.
Ans. There has been no sign of improvement in the patient, has there?

VII. Exclamatory and Assertive Sentences.
1. What a wonderful story it was! (make it assertive)
Ans. It was a wonderful story.

2. How naughty you are!
 Ans. You are very naughty.

3. How sweet!
Ans. It is really very sweet.

4. He was very slow. (Make it exclamatory)
Ans. How slow he was!

5. It was a very lovely painting.
Ans. What a lovely painting it was!

6. How lucky I was!
Ans. I was very lucky.

7. What a lesson to be learned from Wilma!
Ans. It was indeed a great lesson to be learned from Wilma.

8. He was an extraordinary human being.
Ans. What an extraordinary human being he was!

9. I am quite tired.
Ans. How tired I am!

10. I am very proud of my nice mother.
Ans. How proud I am of my nice mother!

11. You are absolutely right.
Ans. How right you are!

12. How painful it is.
Ans. It is very painful.

VII. HOMOPHONES
Homophones are those words which sounds similar buy have meaning and spelling different.
4.       There , their
5.       Fair, fare
6.       Knew, new
7.       Wright, right
8.       Sum, some
9.       Whether, weather
10.    Principle, principal
11.    Piece, peace
12.    Birth, berth
13.    Hole, whole
14.    Pray, prey
15.    Sea, see
16.    Be, bee
17.    Where, were
18.    Hear, ear
19.    Our, hour
20.    Are, or

VIII. Degree of comparison.
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
Sweet
Small
Tall
Bold
Clever
Kind
Young
Brave
Fine
Happy
Great
Easy
Wealthy
Hot
Thin
Sad
Fat
Beautiful
Eminent
Industrious
Ferocious
Difficult
Good
Well
Bad
Little
Much
Many
In
Up
Old
Old
Sweeter
Smaller
Taller
Bolder
Cleverer
Kinder
Younger
Braver
Finer
Happier
Greater
Easier
Wealthier
Hotter
Thinner
Sadder
Fatter
More beautiful
More eminent
More industrious
More ferocious
More difficult
Better
Better
Worse
Lesser
More
More
Inner
Upper
Elder
Older
Sweetest
Smallest
Tallest
Boldest
Cleverest
Kindest
Youngest
Bravest
Finest
Happiest
Greatest
Easiest
Wealthiest
Hottest
Thinnest
Saddest
Fattest
Most beautiful
Most eminent
Most industrious
Most ferocious
Most difficult
Best
Best
Worst
Least
Most
Most
Innermost
Uppermost
Eldest
oldest

Positive
Comparative
Superlative
No other
than any other
the happiest
Few other/ very few
than many / most other
one of the tallest

1. Raji is the richest woman in Mumbai.
Ans. Raji is richer than any other woman in Mumbai.
No other woman in Mumbai is as rich as Raji.

2. Swami Raja was one of the most eminent disciple of ustad Amjat Ali Khan. 
Ans. Very few disciples of ustad Amjat Ali Khan were as eminent as swami Raja.
Swami Raja was more eminent than many other disciples of ustad Amjat Ali Khan.

3. Reading is the best form of recreation.
Ans. Reading is better than any other form of recreation.
No other form of recreation is as good as reading.

4. Australia is the largest Island.
Ans. Australia is larger than many other Islands.
No other Island is as large as Australia.

5. Australia is one of the largest Islands.
Ans. Australia is larger than many other Islands.
Very few Islands are as large as Australia.

6. Books are the best source of knowledge.
Ans. Books are better than any other source of knowledge.
No other source of knowledge is as good as books.

7. Iron is stronger than many other metals.
Ans. Iron is one of the strongest metals.
Very few metals are as strong as Iron.

8. No one is as lazy as Raja.
Ans. Raja is lazier than any other.
Raja is the laziest of all.

9. It was Dave’s sister, Barbara, who steeled herself to be his toughest taskmaster.
Ans. No other taskmaster of Dave was as tough as his sister Barbara who steeled herself to be so.

10. He had proved the most important thing.
Ans. He had proved the thing which was more important than any other thing.

11. This was the closest I have been to facing death.
Ans. I have never been as close to facing death as this.

12. I could have overlooked Greed whose Nature is higher than mine.
Ans. My nature is not as high as that of Greed whom I could have overlooked.

13. My heart longed for a position higher than my limited existence.
Ans. My limited existence did not have a position as high as the one my heart longed for.

14. I’d spend more time paying for a bar of soap than I would have if I was buying half the store.
Ans. I would not have taken as much time buying half he store as I would spend paying for a bar of soap.

15. The greatest lessons in life are learnt from children.
Ans. No other lessons in life is as great as the ones that are learnt from children.

16. I have never seen such a ferocious animal as this.
Ans. I have never seen an animal more ferocious than this one.

Note: - Whenever the comparison is made between two persons or things there does not exist with superlative degree.

1. Raja is sweeter than Raji.
Ans. Raji is not as sweet as Raja.

2. Mumbai is not leaner than Chennai.
Ans. Chennai is as clean as Mumbai.

3. March is not as hot as June.
Ans. June is hotter than March.

4. The rose smells as sweet as the lily.
Ans. The lily does not smell sweeter than the rose.

5. The rose smelled as sweet as the lily.
Ans. The lily did not smell sweeter than the rose.

6. The roses smell as sweet as the lilies.
The lilies do not smell sweeter than the rose.

7. I feel as scared as you do.
Ans. I don’t feel less scared than you.

IX. Change the voice.
1. I love
Ans. I am loved.

2. I warn.
Ans. I am warned.

3. He calls.
Ans. He is called.

4. She permits.
Ans. She is permitted.

5. They call.
Ans. They are called.

6. I write.
Ans. I am written.

7. We help.
Ans. We are helped.

8. They ask.
Ans. They are asked.

9. Raja loves Raji.
Ans. Raji is loved by Raja.

10. Vijay loves us.
Ans. We are loved by Vijay.

11. Surya loves me.
Ans. I am loved by Surya.

12. The cat kills the rat.
Ans. The rat is killed by the cat.

13. The cats kill the rat.
Ans. The rat is killed by the cats.

14. The cats kill the rats.
Ans. The rats are killed by the cats.

15. I write a letter.
Ans. A letter is written by me.

16. I write those letters.
Ans. Those letters are written by me.

17. He broke the glass.
Ans. The glass was broken by him.

18. He breaks the glass.
Ans. The glass is broken by him.

19. The C.M. received the P.M.
Ans. The P.M. was received by the C.M.

20. The peon delivered the letters.
Ans. The letters were delivered by the peon.

21. I closed the door.
Ans. The door was closed by me.

22. Raji wrote a letter.
Ans. A letter was written by Raji.

23. He will finish the work.
Ans. The work will be finished by him.

24. He will finish the work.
Ans. The work will be finished by him.

25. People will forget it.
Ans. It will be forgotten by people.

26. I shall invite you.
Ans. You will be invited by me.

27. The police will catch me.
Ans. I shall be caught by the police.

28. They will send me.
Ans. I shall be sent by them.

29. They have eaten the fruits.
Ans. The fruits have been eaten by them.

30. They have opened the window.
Ans. The window has been opened by me.

31. He has driven those cars.
Ans. Those cars have been driven by him.

32. I had written a letter.
Ans. A letter had been written by me.

33. She had painted a picture.
Ans. A picture had been painted by her.

34. He had cut those trees.
Ans. Those trees had been cut by him.

35. The teacher had taught the lesson.
Ans. The lesson had been taught by the teacher.

36. The teacher had taught the lessons.
Ans. The lessons had been taught by the teacher.

37. The teacher will have taught the lesson.
Ans. The lesson will have been taught by the teacher.

38. Vijay will have finished the task.
Ans. The task will have been finished by Vijay.

39. My friend will have bought a gift.
Ans. A gift will have been bought a gift.

40. I shall have written a letter.
Ans. A letter will have been written by me.

41. I am watching you.
Ans. You are being watched by me.
42. The Raman is building the wall.
Ans. The wall is being built by the Raman.

43. The teacher is teaching a new lesson.
Ans. A new lesson is being taught by the teacher.

44. My mother is cutting an apple.
Ans. Apples are being cut by my mother.

45. My mother is cutting apples.
Ans. Apples are being cut by my mother.

47. The gardener was cutting grass.
Ans. Grass was being cut by the gardener.

48. The rain had divided Mumbai into two.
Ans. Mumbai had been divided into two by the rain.

49. He was elected vice – president of the student council.
Ans. They elected him the vice – president of the student council.

50.  He was seized with feeling of inadequacy.
Ans. Feeling of inadequacy seized him.

51. We feel renewed faith in the infinite possibilities of all people. (Begin the sentence with “Renewed faith………”).
Ans. Renewed faith in the infinite possibilities of all people is felt by us.

52. We were designing the first Macintosh computer. (Rewrite the sentence beginning with “The first ……”)
Ans. The firs Macintosh computer was being designed by us.

53. I was diagnosed with cancer. (Change the voice)
Ans. They diagnosed me with cancer.

54. On the back cover they put a photograph of an early morning country road. (Begin with, “A photograph …… and rewrite)
Ans. A photograph of an early morning country road was put on the back cover by them.

55. Nature had bestowed upon you fragrance and beauty. (begin the sentence with “Fragrance ……)
Ans. Fragrance and beauty have been bestowed upon you by nature.

56. Cast aside your thoughts. (Change the voice)
Ans. Let your thoughts be cast aside.

57.  You are consoling me.
Ans. I am being consoled by you.

58. He who humbles himself will be exalted.
Ans. It will exalt him who humbles himself.

59. I have never feared the tempest.
Ans. The tempest has never been feared by me.

60. We were told to fold it neatly.
Ans. He told us to fold it neatly.

61. Father taught us a simple lesson
Ans. A simple lesson was taught to us by father.

X. Modal Auxiliary
1. ‘used to’ is used to express a discontinued habit in the past
2. ‘could’ is used for showing possibility
3. ‘shall’ is used for request, intention, promise, permission
4. ‘will’ is used for warning, order, instruction
5. ‘must/have to’ is used for compulsion, obligation
6. ‘need’ is used for necessity
7. ‘should’ is used for advice.
8. ‘can’ is used for ability, possibility,
9. ‘might – may -- will

1.       You have to trust that dots will somehow connect in you future. (Use Modal auxiliary showing necessity)
Ans. You need to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future.
2.       He who exalts himself will be crushed. (Make the sentence less definite)
Ans. He who exalts himself may be crushed.
3.       I am happy now.  (use modal auxiliary showing Obligation)
Ans. I must happy now.
4.       You should leave your newspaper the way you expect to find it. (use a modal auxiliary showing “obligation”)
Ans. You must leave your newspaper the way you expect to find it.
5.       The streets would be full of children, rushing headlong into the rain. (use a modal auxiliary showing “obligation”)
Ans. The streets must be full of children, rushing headlong into the rain.

XI. Figure of Speech


1.       Personification – human quality
2.       Alliteration – repetition of same alphabet
3.       Repetition – repetition of same word
4.       Tautology – same meaning
5.       Antithesis – opposite words
6.       Hyperbole – over statement
7.       Interrogation – questions
8.       Exclamation – expression
9.       Inversion – jumble words
10.    Onomatopoeia – sound

XII. Wh type questions.

1.       We lived downstairs of the hospital.
Ans. Where did we live?

2.       He announced that he was going to be a doctor.
Ans. What did he announce?

3.       I lived with that diagnosis all day.
Ans. How did I live all day?

4.       Nature heard the conversation.
Ans. What did Nature hear?

5.       The queen of violets saw by her side ­the converted violet.
Ans. Whom did the queen of violets see by her side?

6.       The morning routine started with tea.
Ans. How did the morning routine start?

7.       I didn’t mind vegetable shopping.
Ans. What did I not mind?

8.       The final indicator of a country’s independence is the way its children live.
Ans. What is the final indicator of a country’s independence?

9.       He launched an independent partnership.
Ans. What did he launch?

10.    The rain water rises the water table in the sand.
Ans. What does the rain water rise in the sand?

11.    The monsoon starts in June.
Ans. When does the monsoon start?

12.    We reached America.
Ans. Where did we reach?

13.    Dimple breaks the glass.
Ans. Who does break the glass?

14.    20 billion messages are sent every month worldwide.
Ans. How many messages are sent every month worldwide?


XIII. Direct and indirect speech.



We may report the words of a speaker in two ways.
  • We may quote his actual words. It is Direct speech. 
  • We may report what he has actually said without quoting his exact words. It is Indirect or Reported Speech.
E.g. He said, "I am unwell."
Ans. He said that he was unwell.

In Direct speech we use the inverted commas to mark off the exact words of the speaker. While changing from Direct speech to Indirect speech, the following changes must be made. 

  • After removing the inverted commas, we have to use the conjunction 'that' before we start with the indirect statement. 
  • The first and the second person pronouns i.e. I, we, you - are changed to the third persons pronouns either he, she or they. 
  • Simple present tense becomes simple past tense.
  • Simple past tense becomes past perfect tense.
  • Tense of universal truth and habitual actions remain the same. 

1. He said, "good evening, I've come to see if you have a room for just one night."
Ans. He wished her a good evening and added that he had come to see if she had a room for just one night.

2. "Could I please come back and stay the next time I have a treatment?" he asked.
Ans. He inquired humbly if he could come back and stay the next time he had to have a treatment.

3. "I ran out of pails," she explained.
Ans. She explained that she had run out of pails.

4. Mom said, "I'm tired, and its getting late. Think I'll go to bed."
Ans. Mom explained that she was tired and it was getting late, hence she would go to bed.

5. "I'm on my way," she said.
Ans. She said that she was on her way.

6. Kantabai said, "We realised that if we all bought cattle we would have grazing problems."
Ans. Kantabai said that they realized that if they all bought cattle, they would have grazing problems.

7. Smith: Good Morning, Mr. Jones. It is a long time since I saw you in town.
Jones: Good Morning, Mr. Smith. I only came up for business for few hours.
Ans. Smith wished Jones a good morning and added that it had been a long time since He had seen him in town. Jones greeted Smith in return and explained that he had come to town for business for just a few hours.

8. Kavita: Hello! May I speak to Mayank?
Avinash: Hello Kavita, mayank will come late today!
Ans. Kavita greeted Avinash over the telephone and requested to speak to Mayank. Avinash reciprocated (responded) the greeting and stated that Mayank would come late that day.

9. "I've got a big spot on my chin," said Keryn.
"Don't keep fingering it," said mother.
Ans. Keryn said that she had got a big spot on her chin. Mother advised her not to keep fingering it.

10. I haven't seen you for ages," said my uncle. "You have been travelling a great deal lately?" "Yes, uncle. I have just come back from Cochin."
Ans. My uncle said that he hadn't seen me for ages. he asked whether I had been travelling a great deal lately. I confirmed that I had just come back from Cochin.

11. Rajiv: Excuse me; I need some information regarding trains for Hyderabad.
Clerk: Certainly. You see there are two direct trains to Hyderabad everyday.
Ans. Rajiv requested for some information regarding trains for Hyderabad to he clerk for which he replied saying there were two direct trains to Hyderabad everyday.

12. Kiran: Good morning, teacher. My sister will not be able to attend school tomorrow.
Teacher : Where is she going?
Ans. Kiran wished teacher a good morning and added that his sister would not be able to attend school the next day. the teacher asked where she was going.

13. Master: "Well, Shailesh, I hear you are taking part in the speaking competition."
Pupil: "Yes; and I came to ask you to give me some hits on the art of public speaking."
Ans. The Master told Shailesh that he heard that he was taking part in the speaking competition. Shailesh confirmed that and added that he had come to ask him to give him some hints on the art of public speaking.


1.      The doctor said, “I have given an injection and it will make you sleep.”
Ans. The doctor said that he had given an injection and it would make him sleep.
2.      “Who are you and what are you doing here?” she asked him. “I am a painter and I’m drawing pictures on my pitcher,” he said.
Ans. She asked him who he was and what he was doing there. He answered that he was a painter and was drawing pictures on his pitcher.
3.      “Something is burning,” said the man. “Can you smell it, Vinay?” (Change it into indirect speech)
Ans. The man said that something was burning. He asked Vinay whether he could smell it.
4.      She’d said, “What do you think – that somebody’s always going to be around to wait on you?
Ans. She asked him whether he thought that somebody would always be around to wait on him.
5.      He announced that he was going to be a doctor.
Ans. He announced, “I am going to be a doctor.”
6.      “Why not settle for something more, within your capabilities, like History or Psychology?” suggested the biology professor.
Ans. The biology professor suggested him that he should settle for something more within his capabilities like History or Psychology.
7.      “Dave”, said the other senior, gripping his shoulder, “I can see like an eagle.”
Ans. Gripping his shoulder, the other senior told Dave that he could see like an eagle.
8.      The violet opened her blue lips and said, “What an unfortunate am I among the flowers!”
Ans. The violet opened her blue lips and exclaimed that she was unfortunate among the flowers. 
9.      She laughed and commented. “How strange is your talk!”
Ans. She laughed and commented that her talk was very strange.
10.  She approached and said, “Has greed entered your heart and humbled your senses”
Ans. She approached and asked whether greed had entered her heart and had humbled her senses.
11.  The queen of violets called to her family, saying, “Let the memory of this scene be a reminder of your food fortune.”
Ans. The queen of violets called to her family to say that the memory of that scene should be a reminder of their good fortune.
12.  He would give a reply, “We do not need a house of our own. I already own five houses.”
Ans. He would reply that they did not need a house of their own and added that he already owned five houses.
13.  I tried arguing, “But what difference does it make?”
Ans. I tried to argue saying that it did not make any difference.
14.  “Is it dead?” asked Neha. “No,” said Rahul. “ I can still feel its heart beating.”
Ans. Neha asked whether it was dead. Rahul replied in the negative. He added that he could still fell its heart beating.
15.  Gandhiji said that the greatest lessons in life are learnt from children.
Ans. Gandhiji said, “The greatest lessons in life are learnt from children”.
16.  “Brush your teeth and gargle with a mouthwash after every mean.” Said the dentist to Seema. “I will make it my habit,” said Seema.

XIV. Gerund and infinitive

1.       The sky poured turbulent waters on Mumbai to transform lanes and streets into rivers.
(Rewrite using gerund form of the underlined word)
Ans. The sky poured turbulent waters on Mumbai, transforming  lanes and streets into rivers.
2.       Nature granted my request and changed me into a rose. (Use infinitive and rewrite)
Ans. Nature granted my request to change me into a rose.
3.       Making omelettes and rolling out chappatis became my special duties.
Ans. To make omelettes and to roll out chappatis became my special duties.
4.       I got caught each time I tried arguing.
Ans. I got caught each time I tried to argue.
5.       Besides, in India there are always other people to do al that for you.
Ans. Besides, in India there are always other people doing all that for you.
6.       Finally, we tried to combine forces.
Ans. Finally, we tried combining forces.
7.       Looking for groceries was another matter.
Ans. To look for groceries was another matter.
8.       My parents preferred to patronize just on store.
Ans. My parents preferred patronizing just one store.


XV. Rewrite using unless/ but for / if …… not, as required.
1.      You will never know unless you try. (Rewrite using ‘if ..... not’)
Ans.  If you do not try, you will never know.
2.      I would never have been what I am today, if my uncle hadn’t helped me.
Ans. But for my uncle’s help, I would never have been that I am today.
3.      But for his parent’s Ravi would have give up.
Ans. If it wasn’t for Ravi’s parents, Ravi would have given up.
4.      Unless you have the hall ticket, you won’t be allowed to appear for the exam.
Ans. If you do not have the hall ticket, you won’t be allowed to appear for the exam.
5.      You need a driving license to drive on the highway.
Ans. Unless you have a driving license, you cannot drive on the highway.
6.      Don’t take these medicines unless the doctor advises.
Ans. Don’t take these medicines, if the doctor does not advise.
7.      If you don’t know about electric current, don’t touch it.
Ans. Unless you know about electric current, don’t touch it.
8.      If you don’t pass your SSC exam, you cannot get admission in any junior colleges.
Ans. Unless you pass your SSC exam, you cannot get admission to Junior Colleges.
9.      If the government hadn’t helped, the farmers would have lost their crops.
Ans. But for the help of the government, the farmers would have lost their crops.
10.  But for my teachers, I would never have scored this much.
Ans. If it wasn’t for my teachers, I would never have scored this much.
11.  Do you have a proper training? Only then you can go for mountaineering in the Himalayas.
Ans. Unless you have proper training, you cannot go for mountaineering in the Himalayas.


XVI. Identify the tense
1.      They had not been frank enough with Dave.
Ans. Past perfect tense.
2.      The four Hartmans were lingering at the dinner table.
Ans. Past continuous (progressive) tense.
3.      It all came back to me. (Rewrite using Past perfect Tense)
Ans. It had all come back to me.
4.      There was an amazing publication. (Use Past perfect tense and rewrite)
Ans. There had been an amazing publication.
5.      You are consoling me. (Use present perfect continuous tense)
Ans. You have been consoling me.
6.      Contentment has acted as a barrier. (Make Present Perfect Continuous tense)
Ans. Contentment has been acting as a barrier.

XVII. Make it simple, compound & complex.
1.      These eloquent words brought in a standing ovation for David. (make it complex)
Ans. These eloquent words are the ones which brought in a standing ovation for David.
2.      After reading the newspaper aloud, we were told to fold it neatly. (rewrite using a compound sentence form)
Ans. We read the newspaper aloud and then we were told to fold it neatly.
3.      Sensing my resentment, my mother tried not to force this particular “duty” on me.(Make it a complex sentence)
Ans. My mother tried not to force this particular “duty” as she sensed my resentment.
4.      Sensing my resentment, my mother tried not to force this particular “duty” on me.(Make it a compound sentence)
Ans. My mother sensed my resentment and tried not to force this particular duty on me.
5.      I know my sisters hated it equally, but someone had to do it. (Make it a complex sentence)
Ans. Though I knew my sister hated it equally, someone had to do it.
6.      It was some simpler words from the past that Dave voiced. (Make it simple sentence)
Ans. Dave voiced some simpler words from the past.
7.      You have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in you future. (Make it compound)
Ans. The dots will somehow connect in your future and you have to trust them.
8.      This approach had never let me down and it has made all the difference in my life.
Ans. This approach, without ever letting me down, has made all the difference in my life.
9.      My doctor advised me o go home and get my affairs in order. (Make it a simple sentence)
Ans. My doctor advised me to go home for getting my affairs in order.
10.  It was their farewell message as they signed off. (Make it simple)
Ans. While signing off, it was their farewell message.
11.  I live very close to earth and I cannot raise my head towards the sky. (Make it simple)
Ans. Living very close to earth Ii cannot raise my head towards the blue sky.
12.  I live very close to earth and I cannot raise my head towards the sky. (Make it complex)
Ans. Since I live very close to earth, I cannot raise my head towards the blue sky.
13.  You are fortunate and yet you cannot understand your fortune. (Make it complex)
Ans. Though you are fortunate, you cannot understand your fortune.
14.  The queen of violets lifted her head and called to her family. (make it simple)
Ans. Lifting her head the queen of violets called to her family.
15.  The reality is that our children are very intelligent.
Ans. Our children are very intelligent and that is the reality.
16.  As adults, fearing failure, we give up before we try. (make it compound)
Ans. As adults we feat failure and give up before we try.


XVIII. Rhetorical type questions.

1.      Your time is limited. (frame a Rhetorical questions)
Ans. Isn’t Your time limited?
2.      You have been humble and sweet in all your deeds.
Ans. Haven’t you been humble and sweet in all your deeds?
3.      Ambition beyond existence is the essential purpose of our being.
Ans. Isn’t ambition beyond existence the essential purpose of our being?
4.      Today, the rains fall on empty streets.
Ans. Today, don’t the rains fall on empty streets?
5.      They aren’t free from social conditioning.
Ans. Are they free from social conditioning?
6.      We became part of a larger reality.
And. Didn’t we become a part of a larger reality?
7.      Imagination is everything.
Ans. Isn’t imagination everything?
8.      It’s not strange that my children refuse to believe that their grandfather and laughter were ever strangers?
Ans. Is strange that my children refuse to believe that their grandfather and laughter were even strangers?
9.      A child is inherently curious about the world.
Ans. Isn’t child inherently curious about the world?
10.  This pre-drawn massacre is a regular feature.
Ans. Isn’t this pre – drawn massacre a regular feature.
11.  Happiness can’t be bought with cash?
Ans. Can happiness be bought with cash?
12.  This is an extreme case of intellectual subversion.
Ans. Isn’t this extreme case of intellectual subversion.




XIX. Not only But also
1.      Nature had fashioned me to be short and poor.
Ans. Nature has fashioned me to be not only short but also poor.
2.      The distances shrunk, the geographical boundaries disappeared.
Ans. Not only did the distances shrink but also the geographical boundaries disappeared.
3.      This is the design of life. This is the secret of Existence.
Ans. This is not only the design of Life but also the secret of Existence.
4.      You are contented and meek dullards.
Ans. You are not only contented but also meek dullards.
5.      Business begins and ends with that simple precept.
Ans. Business not only begins but also ends with that simple precept.
6.      I loved the old Dhobi Talao market and was on first – name terms with the vendors.
Ans. Not only did I love the old Dhobi Talao market but I also was on first  name terms with the vendors.

XX. No sooner …… than
1.      As I hearkened to the silence of the night, I heard the heavenly world talking.
Ans. No sooner did I hearken to the silence of the night than I heard the heavenly world talking.
2.      I’ve tried getting you into the kitchen to help me cook on special occasions and seen the faces you’ve pulled.
Ans. No sooner have I tried getting you into the kitchen to help me cook on special occasions than I have seen the faces you’ve pulled.
3.      As soon as I reached the class, the students remained silent.
Ans. No sooner did I reach the class than the student remained silent.
4.      As soon as the monsoon starts, the farmers become happy.
Ans. No sooner does the monsoon starts than the farmers become happy.
5.      Gazing at the magnificent bird, Carter grew convinced.
Ans. No sooner did Carter gaze at the magnificent bird than he grew convinced.
6.      She fell down in one place when fellow pedestrian rushed instantly for her help.
Ans. No sooner did she fall down in one place than fellow pedestrian rushed instantly for her help.

7.      Most morning my wife enters the kitchen to find the scurrying away.
Ans. Most morning no sooner does my wife enter the kitchen than she find them scurrying away.

8.      To avoid spoilage a 4000 litre milk chilling plant was set up.
Ans. No sooner was a 4000 litre milks chilling plant set up than avoid spoilage.

9.      As soon as the leaf fell from the trees the wind swept it away?
Ans. No sooner did the leaf fall from the tree than the wind swept it away.

10.  As soon as the teacher entered the class, the students wished him good morning?
Ans. No sooner did the teacher enter the class than the student wished him good morning.

XXI. Used to & would

1.      I would spend hours under it.
Ans. I used to spend hours under it.
2.      My father used to get transferred every year.
Ans. My father would get transferred every year.
3.      My mother would set up an establishment.
Ans. My mother used to set up an establishment.
4.      Our day used to start with the family huddling around my mother’s chulha.
Abs. Our day would start with the family huddling around my mother’s chulha.
5.      He would give a reply.
Ans. He used to give a reply.
6.      She would take her kitchen utensils and she and I would dig the rocky, white ant infested surroundings.
Ans. She used totake her kitchen utensils and she and I used to dig the rocky, white ant infested surroundings.
7.      She would cook for the family.
Ans. She used to cook for the family.

Complex Sentences: (because, when, while, where, as, before, after, that, since, as soon as, no sooner, if, unless, as .... though, if .... though, though, even though, although, whether, so .... that, till, only if, so that, until, which, ………)

Compound Sentence: (and, but, or, not only ...... but also, either ..... or, neither ..... nor,                       )

Conversion of Simple Sentences into Compound sentences

1.       Simple: Seeing a snake he ran away.
Compound: He saw a snake and ran away.
2.       Simple: Besides being intelligent she is beautiful.
Compound: She is intelligent and she is beautiful.
3.       Inspite of his enormous wealth but still he is sad.
Compound: He possess enormous wealth still he is sad.
4.       Simple: Standing with his grief he is optimistic (confident).
Compound: He is grievous but still he is optimistic.
5.       Simple: To avoid danger you must be very careful.
Compound: Either you must be careful otherwise you will meet danger. 

Conversion of Compound Sentences into Simple Sentences

1.       I ate apple, I went to Cinema.
Eating apple I went to Cinema.
2.       He passed M.B.B.S. and became a doctor.
Having passed M.B.B.S. he became a doctor.
3.       You must study well or you will not get the first class mark.
You must study well to get the first class mark.

Conversion of Simple sentences into Complex sentences

1.       He doesn’t know the date of his marriage.
He doesn’t know when he had married.
2.       He expects first class in the medical examination.
He expects that he will get first class in the medical examination.
3.       A man of justice gets respect every where
A man of who justice gets respect very where
4.       The reason for his success is unknown.
The reason how he succeeded is unknown.
5.       On seeing a police thief ran away.
As soon as thief saw the police ran away.

Conversion on Complex Sentences into Simple Sentences

1.       Since he was tired he could not go to office.
On account of his tiredness, he could not go to office
2.       What he aced was seen by all
His action was seen by all.
3.       He student who studies well gets high marks
The well studying student gets high marks.
4.       He went to the college where he studied
He went to his old college.
5.       He replaced the old wall clock which was damaged.
He replaced the damaged wall clock.
6.       He ran fast the he might not miss the train
He ran fast to catch the train
7.       After I had reserved the tickets I returned to my house.
Having reserved the tickets I returned to house.

Compound to Complex

1.       Study well or you will fail
Unless you study well you will fail.
2.       He saw the name board and entered the hotel.
Seeing the name board, he entered that hotel.
3.       He was suffering from fever and he was admitted in the hospital.
Since he was feverish he was admitted in the hospital.
4.       He is strong but he is timid (scared).
Although he is strong, he is timid.

Complex to Compound

1.       I saw a monkey which was sitting on a tree.
I saw the monkey. It was sitting on a tree.
2.       If you go to Agra you can see Tajmahal.
Go to Agra you can see Tajmahal.
3.       I suspect that he has done the murder.
He has done the murder. I suspect him.
4.       Though the soldier was wounded, but he went to the battle field again.
The soldier was wounded. He went to the battle field again.


DO AS DIRECTED
1.      Most children remain ___ school _____ the ages of six and sixteen.
2.      The main drawback ___  the area is its distance _______ the railway.
3.      He sailed across the sea and landed on  the shore.
4.      He saw _____ star shooting down towards ___ the earth. (Insert appropriate articles wherever necessary and rewrite the sentence)
5.       
6.      These new trees brought back the insects. (Rewrite beginning with “The insects……”)
7.      Carter had hoped. (Add a question tag.)
8.      Bird - watchers gathered to count the increasing number of native birds. (rewrite using ‘and’)
9.      …… Yamuna is …… tributary of the Ganges. (Rewrite using the appropriate articles.)
10.  Most children remain ……… school ……… between the ages of six and sixteen.
(rewrite using the appropriate prepositions)
11.  The doctor said, “I have given an injection and it will make you sleep.”
(Change it into indirect speech)
12.  It is the biggest review of planer’s life support systems.
(Rewrite using comparative degree)
13.  More ominously, the assessment team warns that the ability of Earth’s ecosystem to sustain future generation can no longer be taken for granted. (rewrite using the noun form of the underlined word)
14.  That’s enough evidence for experts to warn of the likelihood of potentially abrupt changes which could seriously affect human well being. (Rewrite the sentence removing which)
15.  What is the best way ­to do it?
(Rewrite using the ‘gerund’ form of the underlined infinitive)
16.  The Taj will be washed clean with salt free water.
(Use modal auxiliary showing ‘obligation’)
17.  Multani Mitti takes its name from a place in Pakistan.
(Rewrite using Present Perfect Tense)
18.  Insert the appropriate articles wherever necessary and rewrite the sentence. He saw star shooting down towards Earth.
19.  “Who are your and what are you doing here?” she asked him. “I am a painter and I’m drawing pictures on my pitcher,” he said. (change it into indirect speech)
20.  We would try to gauge father’s mood from the movement of his eyes. (Use ‘used to’)
21.  I am grateful to him. (add a question tag)
22.  He exudes a quiet smile of satisfaction. (Use present Perfect continuous tense)




IDIOMS AND PHRASES
1.       Feeling safe with : My pet dog always feels safe with me around.
2.       To have a place in someone’s heart: I know, I will always have a place in my mother’s heart.
3.       Don’t dare to risk: If one does not date to risk, he will never find success.
4.       To lose one’s calm: A good driver never loses his calm in heavy traffic.
5.       Begin to take shape: My career will begin to take shape as soon as I finish my schooling.
6.       Good at heart: Though my neighbours are poor, they are good at heart.
7.       As fast as one changes socks: I have the habit of changing my hobbies as fast as I change socks.
8.       Personalities are well matched: Ours is a lovely family as our personalities are well matched.
9.       Fixing supper: I returned just when, my mother was fixing delicious supper.
10.    Oversized heart crowded into a tiny body: Mother Teresa worked all her life for the betterment of the down – trodden, she had an oversized heart crowded into a tiny body.
11.    Run short of:  I couldn’t go home by cab, since I had run short of money.
12.    As neat as a pin: My mother keeps the house as neat as a pin.
13.    Rough and tumble: My little sister is so boisterous, she throws her cleaned bedroom into a rough and tumble in no time.  
14.    To make a new beginning: After my SSC exams it will be time for me to make a new beginning.
15.    Take a long detour(diversion) : Since, I left early; I look a long detour to school.
16.    Maintain the status quo: Only those who maintain the same status quo are made members of the organising committee.
17.    To have extensive knowledge of : My teacher has extensive knowledge of English literature.
18.    To face a financial crunch: The village committee helps those farmers who are facing a financial crunch.
19.    Below poverty line: The Indian government is trying its  level best to help Indians who live below the poverty line.
20.    Tarred me forever: Losing the prestigious scholarship would have tarred me forever.

Rewrite as Affirmative
1.       They cannot be counted as friend.
It is impossible to count them as friends.
2.       They had no money.
They were without any money.
3.       You will never succeed to win a friend without any faults.
You will always fail to win a friend without any faults.
4.       Do not lose your calm, if their opinions differ from yours.
Always maintain your calm, if their opinions differ from yours.
5.       It is not possible for me to carry on answering everyone.
It is impossible for me to carry on answering everyone.
6.       Never give up.
Always carry on .
7.       No formal handshakes or polite hellos.
We managed without formal handshakes or polite hellos.
8.       You are not the only one to write all these years.
There have been others who have written all these years.
9.       He’d been hunting for a room since noon, but with no success.
He’d been hunting for a room since noon, but without any success.
10.    It did not take me long to read this man.
It took me very little time to read this man.
11.    He wasn’t complaining.
He was far from complaining.
12.    There was never a time when he did not bring some gift.
He always brought some gift every time.
13.    I don’t know who wrote it.
I am unable to say who wrote it.
14.    She did not visualize her goals before saying her prayers.
She visualized her goals, only after saying her prayers.
15.    No one will associate my name with the compost.
All will fail to associate my name with compost.
16.    We would have grazing problems because land is not big.
We would have grazing problems because the land is small.
17.    This was not how I say my future.
I saw my future quite contrary to this.
18.    The school not only admitted her but pulled out all stops to support her.
The school admitted her and also pulled out all the stops to support her.
19.    It was determined not to be late again.
I was determined to be on time after this.
20.    She couldn’t hold on for much longer.
She had to give in soon.


Affirmative to Negative
1.       We may be friendly with may but they can hardly be our friends.
We may be friendly with many, but they cannot be our friends.
2.       We need to choose our friends with care.
We should not choose our friends carelessly.
3.       Long term happy friendships indicate that a person has a strong sense of self – worth.
Long term happy friendships indicate that a person does not lack a strong sense of self – worth.
4.       We need to realize that we are imperfect human beings.
We need to realize that we are not perfect human beings.
5.       Tell your friends what you like about them.
Do not fail to tell your friends what you like about them.
6.       I was prepared.
I was not unprepared.
7.       She remained hidden for two years.
She did not show herself for two years.
8.       She believed that people are really good at heart.
She believed that people are not bad at heart.
9.       The main thing is that you have respect for each other.
The main thing is that you do not fail to have respect for each other.
10.    Yet, his voice was pleasant.
Yet, his voice was not unpleasant.
11.    He refused breakfast.
He did not accept breakfast.
12.    The house is quiet.
The house is not noisy.
13.    I have always cherished it.
I have never failed to cherish it.
14.    I smile at the thunderous sound of feet running.
I do not fail to smile at the thunderous sound of feet running.
15.    It was a time of earnest discussion.
It was not a time of frivolous discussion.
16.    Today, I see the same in my wife.
Today, I do not fail to see the same in my wife.
17.    I thank God for all the mothers in the world.
I do not forget to thank God for all the mothers in the world.
18.    Even if there a loss, I will sell it under my own name.
Even if there is a loss, I will not sell it under anybody else’s name.
19.    We realized that if we all bought cattle, we would have grazing problems.
We realized that if we all bought cattle, we would not fail to have a grazing problem.
20.    I did the rounds of all public schools.
I did not fail to do the rounds of all public schools.

Make it interrogative
1.       A real friend remembers you in his prayers.
Doesn’t a real friend remember you in his prayers?
2.       Friendship required special nourishing.
Doesn’t friendship require special nourishing?
3.       He won’t mind starting in this small body.
Will he mind starting in this small body?
4.       The end of school was a momentous occasion.
Wasn’t the end of school a momentous occasion?
5.       It will be mother’s day in a few days.
Won’t it be mother’s day in a few days?
6.       My lack of vision is my strength?
Isn’t my lack of vision my strength?

Active and Passive voice
1.       Friendship requires special nourishing.
Special nourishing is required by friendship.
2.       Treat your friends as equals.
Let your friends be treated as equals.
3.       A real friend warms you by is presence.
You are warmed by the presence of a real friend.
4.       Did he speak English?
Was English spoken by him.
5.       Otto advised me to get books about Judaism.
I was advised by Otto to get books about Judaism.
6.       Otto Frank’s vision of hope gave my husband and me the courage to become parents.
My husband and I were given the courage to become parents by Otto Frank’s vision of hope.
7.       The young writer told Otto of her horrifying background.
Otto was told by the young writer of her horrifying background.
8.       His next words convinced me.
I was convinced by his next words.
9.       Your children made me feel at home.
I was made to feel at home by your children.
10.    Dad turned off the T.V.
The T.V. was turned off by Dad.
11.    She said her prayers.
Her prayers were said by her.
12.    Her application for loan was sanctioned.
They sanctioned her application for a loan.
13.    Kantabai bought buffaloes with her part of the loan.
Buffaloes were bought by Kantabai with her part of the loan.
14.    Maggu rejected the advice.
The advice was rejected by Maggu.
15.    Delhi’s Bluebells school not only admitted her but pulled out all stops to support her.
She was not only admitted by Delhi’s Bluebells school, but all stops were pulled out to support her.
16.    I took the first two pitches as the count reached one ball and one strike.
The first two pitches were taken by me as the count reached one ball and one strike.
17.    The fast ball was delivered over the inside corner.
He delivered the fast ball over the inside corner.
18.    He took out a sheet of paper.
A sheet of paper was taken out by him.
19.    At the end of ten days, he had sold sever telephones.
At the end of ten days, seven telephones had been sold by him.
20.    He put action to his goals.
Action was put to his goals by him.
21.    Cowboy had made millions of dollars.
Millions of dollars had been made by the cowboy.

Rewrite as simple sentences.
1.       It was the end of the journey. Anne Frank’s father waited.
Anne Frank’s father waited at the end of the journey.
2.       She remained hidden for two years. She was with her parents.
She remained hidden for two years with her parents.
3.       The train was slowing. The conductor announced the stop.
On the slowing down of the train, the conductor announced the stop.
4.       It was a delicious moment. I had it to myself.
I had the delicious moment to myself.
5.       They went to school together. They fought and laughed all the way.
They went to school together, fighting and laughing all the way.
6.       Kantabai laughs heartily. She declares she is an ‘angutha chhap’
Laughing heartily, Kantabai declares, herself an ‘angutha chhap’
7.       Snowy is my faithful dog. I love her.
I love snowy, my faithful dog.
8.       Lata was very rude. I took no notice of her rudeness.
I took no notice of Lata’s rudeness.
9.       He picked up the coin. He gave it to the beggar.
Picking up the coin, he gave it to the beggar.
10.    I accept your excuses. I do it without reserve.
I accept your excuses unreservedly.
11.    I met him only once. It was in a railway carriage.
I met him only once in a railway carriage.
12.    Kalidasa was a great poet. Kalidasa was born in India.
Kalidasa, the great poet, was born in India.
13.    You have told a lie. There is no meaning in it.
You have told a meaningless lie.
14.    Old mother Hubbard went to the cupboard. She got the poor dog a bone.
Old mother Hubbard went to the cupboard, to get the poor dog a bone.
15.    When my husband died, I was all alone.
I was all alone on my husband’s death.
16.    He cannot afford a new flat. He is too poor.
He is too poor to afford a new flat.
17.    When I think of India. I think of many things.
On thinking of India, I think of many things.
18.    She confessed that she was very sad.
She confessed of her sadness.




Synonyms


1.       alms       -               gratuity
2.       assent    -               consent
3.       bad         -               evil
4.       beautify -               adorn
5.       beg          -               implore
6.       behavior                -               conduct
7.       big          -               enormous, bulky
8.       blessing -               benediction
9.       brave      -               courageous
10.    bright     -               lustrous
11.    brittle     -               frail, fragile
12.    busy       -               diligent
13.    catch      -               capture
14.    cause     =              purpose
15.    charity   =              benevolence
16.    choose   =              select
17.    clever     =              ingenious
18.    clothes   =              attire
19.    confess  =              admit
20.    cruelty   =              tyranny
21.    dangerous             =              perilous
22.    decrease                =              reduce
23.    difficult =              hard
24.    disease  =              sickness, illness
25.    disfigure = mar, deface
26.    dishonest              =              deceitful
27.    dull         =              dreary, cheerless
28.    earn        =              achieve, gain
29.    ebb         =              recede, wane
30.    elevate   =              raise
31.    elude      =              baffle
32.    emotion =              feeling
33.    enemy    =              foe
34.    enquire  =              search, ask
35.    eradicate               =              eliminate
36.    eternal   =              perpetual
37.    famous =              renowned
38.    fasten     =              bind
39.    fatal       =              mortal, deadly
40.    fight        =              battle, combat
41.    firm       =              stable, settled
42.    fond        =              loving
43.    friend     =              comrade
44.    fruitful   =              productive
45.    gay          =              cheerful
46.    gaze        =              stare
47.    generous               =              large – hearted
48.    habit      =              custom
49.    help        =              assist
50.    hinder    =              obstruct
51.    home      =              abode
52.    infinite   =              endless
53.    injure     =              harm, violate, hurt
54.    irritate   =              annoy
55.    kind        =              humane / considerate
56.    lazy         =              indolent
57.    malice    =              malevolence  (evil)
58.    mistake  =              error
59.    motive    =              purpose
60.    narrate  =              tell
61.    necessary              =              essential
62.    obedient                =              servile
63.    odious   =              offensive
64.    omen      =              augury, sign
65.    pale        =              wan, pallid
66.    pitiful     =              compassionate
67.    port        =              harbor
68.    power     =              harbour
69.    power     =              capacity
70.    poverty  =              want, penury
71.    predict   =              foretell
72.    pretty     =              beautiful
73.    quiet       =              tranquil, silent
74.    scorn      =              despise
75.    sly           =              cunning
76.    smell      =              odour
77.    souvenir                =              momento
78.    stranger =              foreigner, alien
79.    suitable =              appropriate
80.  victory   =              triumph


Antonyms of words




hate - love
abominable - pleasing
above - below
absence - presence
absurd
logical
abundance - dearth
accelerate - intentional
accustomed - unaccustomed
acknowledge - deny
acquire - lose
active - inactive, passive
acute - dull 
admire - despise
admit - deny
advance  - retreat
advantage - disadvantage
adversity - prosperity
affable - rude
affirmative  -  negative
allow - disallow
always - never
amateur - professional
ambiguous - clear
ample - meagre
ancient - modern
animate - inanimate
appoint - dismiss
apprehend - release
approach - retreat
arrival - departure
arrogant - humble 
ascend - descend
assemble - disperse, disassemble
assert - contradict, deny
associate - dissociate
attack - defend, protect
aware - ignorant
backward - forward
barbarous - civilized
barren - fruitful
belief - doubt
benediction - malediction
bind - losen
blame - praise
blessing - curse
boastful - modest
bravery - cowardice
brutality - humanity
compliance - refusal
compulsory - optional
conceited - modest
clever - stupid
common - rare
compassionate - merciless
concur - disagree, differ
confidence - diffidence 
consolidate - weaken
construct - destroy
converge - diverge
convex - concave
courage - cowardice 
create - annihilate, destroy
crude - refined
cruel - kind
danger - safety
dawn - dusk
decent - indecent
deep - shallow
deficit - surplus
deliberate - unintentional
dense - scattered
deny - affirm, accept
deposit - withdraw
despise - venerate
devious - straight
diminish - increase
disclose - conceal
disease - health
distrub - soothe
docile - stubborn
dubious - certain
dwarf - giant
dynamic - static
eager - reluctant
economical - uneconomical
elevation - depression
employ - dismiss
endless - finite
enrich - impoverish
enthusiasm - apathy
entry - exit
erect - demolish
eternal - temporal
evil - good
exaggerate - understate 
exclude - include
exonerate - implicate
familiar - strange
famous - obscured
fertile - sterile, infertile
fade - bloom
failure - success
failure - success
festive - mournful
fiery - cold
flexible - rigid
flourish - decay
frank - secretive