Civics 1. National Integration Class 8th Social Science Term 1 Tamilnadu Board Solution

Class 8th Social Science Term 1 Tamilnadu Board Solution

Exercise
Question 1.

choose the correct answer:

The number of recognized languages in India is ………….. .
A. 15

B. 18

C. 22


Answer:

C

Explanation: Hundreds of different languages are spoken in India depending on the regions and communities. Out of these, 22 are constitutionally recognized as they are the major languages of India. The 22 languages are listed in the eighth schedule of the Indian constitution.


Question 2.

The Official Language of India is ………………. .
A. English

B. Tamil

C. Hindi


Answer:

C

Explanation: According to article 343 of Indian constitution the official language of the union shall be Hindi in Devnagari script. It is also known as the official language of India. It is the most widely known and spoken language in India.


Question 3.

In India, the states are divided on the basis of ……………….. .
A. Language

B. Literature

C. Heritage


Answer:

A

Explanation: State Reorganization Act 1956 was passed and accepted the principle of linguistic states, but there were exceptions also. There were bilingual states also like Bombay state. Language alone didn’t remain the sole basis for state reorganization.


Question 4.

The National Integration Day is observed on ……………. .
A. 14th November

B. 19th November

C. 1st November


Answer:

B

Explanation: National Integration Day has been observed in India on 19th November to emphasize as well as celebrate the unity in diversity in India.


Question 5.

Fill in the blanks:

India is also known as ……………..


Answer:

Bharat

Explanation: India has been called Bharat for a long time. The phrase ‘Mera Bharat’ is popular throughout the nation.



Question 6.

Cave Temples are at ………………….


Answer:

Mamallapuram

Explanation: The Cave Temples at Mamallapuram are famous for its exquisite architecture. There is Trimurti cave temple it is an example of Pallava architecture. Mamallapuram is a city known as a city of sculptures and monuments.



Question 7.

Social structure of India is based upon ……………….. system.


Answer:

Caste

Explanation: Caste system is one of the evils in the society where people are discriminated against on the basis of their birth. This evil is the main reason for backwardness, poverty, and lack of development of some group of peoples.



Question 8.

The Buddhists celebrate …………………. .


Answer:

Buddha Poornima

Explanation: The Buddha Poornima is celebrated by Buddhists to mark the birth of Gautama Buddha.



Question 9.

Match the following:



Answer:

1.Kalidasa - Megadootham

Meghadootam is a lyric poem written by Kalidasa. Kalidasa is considered as a greatest Sanskrit poet. Meghdoot means cloud messenger, so the poem is about the cloud messenger.


2. The Bible - The Holy Book


The Bible is a collection of sacred text and scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and the record of the relationship between God and human being.


3..Mount Abu - Jain Temple


It is a famous hill station in Aravali range in the state of Rajasthan. The highest peak of the mountain range is Guru Shikhar. The Dilwara Jain Temple is in Mount Abu Rajasthan.


4. Golden Temple - Amritsar


Golden Temple is also known as Harminder Sahib, or Darbar Sahib is in Amritsar (Punjab). It is a gurudwara and holiest place for Sikhs.



Question 10.

Answer the following questions briefly:

Define culture.


Answer:

Culture comes from the various inter-relations and functioning in civic society. It includes the individual activities of a person as well as the activities done as a part of the society.

Culture is an abstract concept which includes many things like norms, values, procedures, social functioning, etc. of a society. It is expressed through philosophy, art, language, customs, etc.



Question 11.

Mention some of the festivals of the Hindus.


Answer:

Hindu festivals: Deepavali, Ram Navami, Durga Pooja, Pongal etc.

Hindu festivals in India vary from place to place. While some festivals are celebrated throughout the country, others are specific to certain regions



Question 12.

Name some temples in South India.


Answer:

Temples in South India: Meenakshi temple, Brihadeeswara temple, Kailasanathar temple, Vaikunta Perumal temple etc.

Temple architecture has been an important tradition in South India for centuries. There are many temples with exquisite architecture in every state.



Question 13.

Point out the factors affecting national integration.


Answer:

The factors affecting national integration:

1. Communalism


2. Linguism


3. Casteism


4. Economic disparity


5. Regional imbalances


Despite India’s characteristic of Unity in Diversity, there are some phenomena that try to break such unity. For example, Casteism has been present in Indian society for centuries and is a threat to social unity.



Question 14.

Answer the following questions in detail:

India is a land of ‘’Unity in Diversity’’ – Explain


Answer:

India is a land of Unity in Diversity:

1. Although India is diverse in many ways, all Indians are united by their national identity of being an Indian.


2. All Indians salute the National Flag and sing the National Anthem. They take pride in being an Indian.


3. Different regions in India vary in their culture, language, and religion. But all of them live together despite their differences.


4. Although every religion has different festivals, it is celebrated by everyone. Such celebrations are uniting.


5. Art and literature have attracted people from throughout the country regardless of their religion, language or caste.



Question 15.

Explain the factors that lead to National Integration.


Answer:

Factors that lead to National Integration:

1. Geographical features: Despite the internal diversity, all the regions from Kashmir to Kanyakumari are part of India. It is defended by one military force.


2. Heritage: All Indians share their cultural heritage that has been present since ancient times. This unity overcomes all diversities.


3. National symbols: All symbols like the National Flag, National Anthem, National Tree, etc. are respected by every Indian regardless of which community they belong to.


4. Constitutional Principles: The Constitution of India stands by certain principles that it considers supreme like Democracy, Sovereignty, Secularism, and Socialism.


5. National Integration Day is celebrated on 19th November to mark the importance of Indian unity.




Formative Assessment
Question 1.

Mark the states and capitals on a political map of India.


Answer:



Question 2.

Find the main language spoken in each of the states of India.


Answer:

Languages spoken in states:

1. Jammu and Kashmir - Kashmiri


2. Himachal Pradesh - Hindi


3. Uttarakhand - Hindi


4. Punjab - Punjabi


5. Harayana - Hindi


6. Uttar Pradesh - Hindi


7. Bihar - Hindi


8. Rajasthan - Hindi


9. Madhya Pradesh - Hindi


10. Chattisgarh - Hindi


11. Jharkhand - Hindi


12. West Bengal - Bengali


13. Sikkim - Nepali


14. Assam - Assamese


15. Arunachal Pradesh - Bengali, Assamese, English


16. Nagaland - Bengali


17. Mizoram - Bengali


18. Tripura - Bengali


19. Meghalaya - Bengali


20. Manipur - Manipuri


21. Maharashtra - Marathi


22. Odisha - Oriya


23. Gujarat - Gujarati


24. Karnataka - Kannada


25. Goa - Konkani


26. Kerala - Malayalam


27. Tamil Nadu - Tamil


28. Andhra Pradesh - Telugu


29. Telangana - Telugu



Question 3.

Prepare a project on the influence of Mughal and British rule in India on her culture under the following heads:

a. Language b. Religion

c. Clothes d. Festivals

e. Food f. Dance and Music

g. Art and Architecture h. Customs

i. Literature j. Education


Answer:

Influence of Mughal and British rule:

1. Language: Persian came to be the language of the court under Akbar and thereafter during Mughal rule. Urdu, a mix of Persian and Hindustani was born also during this period. When the British rule began, English became the predominant language of administration.


2. Religion: Akbar was the most tolerant of Mughal rulers and even created a new religion: Din-i-Ilahi. But Aurangzeb was an orthodox Sunni Muslim and was strict against all other religions and the Shia sect. The British were tolerant of religions as long as it did not interfere with their administration.


3. Clothes: Under the Mughal rule, clothes from the Arab and Muslim regions became very prominent. However, there was traditional attire for every place. After the British, western clothes became common amongst the Indian officials and factory made clothes destroyed the handloom industries.


4. Festivals: Since Mughal times, numerous festivals of various religions and places were celebrated openly and in full sway. During British rule, many times festivals were interrupted when there was a curfew or a law against gatherings, especially in the later years of the Britsh Raj.


5. Dance and Music: Dance and music were patronized by the Mughals and artists had an important place in the court. But the British destroyed such a culture of patronizations and court proceedings after conquering. As a result, most artisans lost their livelihood.


6. Art and Architecture: the Mughal rule was a time when art and architecture were greatly patronized. Shah Jahan’s rule is considered the Golden Age of Mughals. He built numerous monuments, the most famous of which is Taj Mahal. Other monuments like Buland Darwaza, Jama Masjid, Red Fort, etc. are also great examples.


7. Customs: Many customs found a way into the mainland over the years. Mughals introduced many Persian and Muslim customs through the court. After the British, many Western customs were followed for administration. However, diverse Indian customs remained throughout the land.


8. Literature: Literature was very important to Mughals. There were chronicles of the rulers and many prominent texts like Mahabharata were translated to Persian. Rulers commissioned many works.


9. Education: Mughals gave much importance to art and literature. Talented artists were patronized by the court. So education in the cultural fields flourished. However, during British rule, Western literature and arts were given importance. They looked down upon Indian history. Western education began and started influencing all students soon after British.


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