Early Tamil Society And Culture Class 9th Social Science Term 1 Tamilnadu Board Solution

Class 9th Social Science Term 1 Tamilnadu Board Solution
Exercise
  1. The name of the script used in the Sangam Age Choose the correct Answer:…
  2. The Sri Lankan chronicle composed in the Pali language mentioning about merchants and…
  3. The notable Chola king credited with bringing forest lands under the plough and developing…
  4. The inscription that mentions the Cheras Choose the correct Answer:…
  5. The famous Venetian traveler who described Kayal as a great and noble city Choose the…
  6. (i) Coins as a medium of exchange were introduced for the first time in the Sangam…
  7. (i) Pathitrupathu speaks about the Pandya kings and their territory.(ii) The Akanaanuru…
  8. __________ are documents scripted on stones, copper plates, coins and rings. Fill in the…
  9. ___________ refers to systematically digging a site to recover material evidence for…
  10. ___________ the classic work on economy and statecraft authored by Kautilya during the…
  11. ___________ is a poetic theme which means a class or category and refers to a habitat or…
  12. ___________ referred to the Westerners, including the Greeks, Romans and West Asian…
  13. a) Evidence of iron smelting has been found in Kodumanal and Guttur.b) Periplus of…
  14. a) The Cheras ruled over Kaveri delta and their capital was Uraiyur.b) The Maangulam…
  15. Match the following:1. Epigraphya narrative text presenting the important historical…
  16. Archaeological sites provide evidence of past history - Discuss. Answer the following…
  17. How important are coins as a source of evidence for the study of Sangam Age? Answer the…
  18. The Tamil rulers were independent of Mauryan authority. What explanation would you offer.…
  19. Agriculture was one of the main sources of subsistence in the Sangam Age. Give reasons.…
  20. Overseas interactions brought glory to ancient Tamilagam. Give examples in support. Answer…
  21. Hero Stones:a. What was the common practice in a pastoral society?b. Who plundered the…
  22. Non - Tamil Sources (Foreign Accounts)a. What does the presence of the non-Tamil sources…
  23. Industries and Crafts of the Sangam Agea. What were the important aspects of…
  24. To what extent do you think the political powers of Tamilagam influenced Sangam Age…
  25. Indicate how the industries and crafts of the Sangam Age contribute to their economy.…
Fun With History
  1. Mark on the map of south India, the ancient Tamilagam and the territories of Tamil…
  2. Visit a museum and collect information about inscriptions, coins and instruments used by…
  3. Visit the early historic sites of Arikkamedu, Kaveripoompattinam, Keezhadi etc. Student…
  4. Conduct a study on materials excavated from prehistoric sites and on Tamil - Brahmi…

Exercise
Question 1.

Choose the correct Answer:

The name of the script used in the Sangam Age

A. English

B. Devanagari

C. Tamil-Brahmi

D. Granta


Answer:

• The Sangam age literature is one of the oldest literatures.


• It can be dated back to 300 BCE.


• The period marks a collection of poems written in Tamil


• This script was well established in the Chera and Pandyan states (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, and Sri Lanka).


• Inscriptions have been found on cave beds, coins, seals, and rings.


• The language is Archaic Tamil and led to classical Sangam literature.


• The contribution to this ancient literature of Southern India was accomplished by almost 473 poets.


Question 2.

Choose the correct Answer:

The Sri Lankan chronicle composed in the Pali language mentioning about merchants and horse traders from Tamil Nadu

A. Deepa vamsa

B. Arthasastra

C. Mahavamsa

D. Indica


Answer:

• The Tamil inscriptions were corroborated by a reference in the Mahavamsa which contains the expression “Damila Assandviks”.


• It means those (Tamils) who brought horses in water-craft, horse merchants.


• The Mahavamsa means "Great Chronicle".


• It was written in 5th century CE


• It is an epic poem written in the Pali language.


Question 3.

Choose the correct Answer:

The notable Chola king credited with bringing forest lands under the plough and developing irrigational facilities

A. Karikalan

B. Rajarajan I

C. Kulothungan

D. Rajendran I


Answer:

• Kadamai or Kudimai was the land revenue system at Rajaraja’s period.


• The state under Rajaraja ordered one-third of the gross produce which was unfair.


• Taxes were on forests, salt pans, agriculture, etc.


• It also controlled a large part of the private lands of the villagers.


• It reclaimed forest and wasteland under the law.


• It helped in the evaluation of the production and land revenue.


• It grouped land revenue and had the position to sell the land in question.


• It also had the powers of taxation for purposes connected with the village. It also had cancellation of taxation for particular reasons.


Question 4.

Choose the correct Answer:

The inscription that mentions the Cheras

A. Pugalur

B. Girnar

C. Pulimankombai

D. Madurai


Answer:

• The first historical evidence about Cheras is found in the Girnar inscriptions .


• It cited four kingdoms like Choda (Chola), Pada, (Pandya), Kerala Puto (Keralaputra), Satiya Puto (Satyaputra) in the south of his empire.


• Keralaputra and Satyaputra are stated in the Rock Edict II and Girnar Inscription.


Question 5.

Choose the correct Answer:

The famous Venetian traveler who described Kayal as a great and noble city

A. Vasco da gama

B. Alberuni

C. Marco Polo

D. Megasthenes


Answer:

• Venetian traveled Marco Polo visited the port twice, once in 1298 and then again in 1293.


• He came by ship from China.


• He described the city as noble for the reason of the ships that came for trade from Arabia and China.


Question 6.

Choose the correct Answer:

(i) Coins as a medium of exchange were introduced for the first time in the Sangam Age.

(ii) Prakrit was the language used by the common people in Northern India during the Mauryan period.

(iii) Vienna Papyrus, a Roman document, mentions trade related to Muziri.

(iv) The concept of Thinai is presented in the Tamil grammar work of Pathupaattu.

A. (i) is correct

B. (ii) is correct

C. (i) and (ii) is correct

D. (iii) and (iv) is correct


Answer:

(b) is the answer because (ii) is correct.


• The language Prakrit was the language spoken in Mauryan period


• It was used in northern and central India.


• This language was formed out of Sanskrit language.


• Texts were written in these languages date from around 3rd century BC to the 8th century AD or afterward.


(a) is incorrect because (i) is wrong.


The first coins were developed in Anatolia during iron age around 6th or 7th century B.C. The first known currency was created by King Alyattes in Lydia in 600BC.


(c) is not the answer because (i) is correct, but (ii) is incorrect.


(d) is not the answer because (iii) is incorrect.


Vienna papyrus was used in transactions in Muziri. But it was for loan-related transactions. Not for included trade-related transactions in muziri.


Question 7.

Choose the correct Answer:

(i) Pathitrupathu speaks about the Pandya kings and their territory.

(ii) The Akanaanuru describes the trading activities at Kaveripoompattinum.

(iii) The Chola Emblem was the tiger and they issued square copper coins with images of a tiger.

(iv) Neythal is a sandy desert region.

A. (i) is correct

B. (ii) and (iii) is correct

C. (iii) is correct

D. (iv) is correct


Answer:

(a) is the answer because (i) is correct.


Patithrupathu is a classical Tamil poet work which consists of 10 poems. It depicts the richness about the Chola and Pandya dynasties.


(b) is not the answer because (ii) is wrong


Akanaanuru is the seventh book of an anthology of Sangam literature and has nothing to do with trade. It has poems that share the story of love and separation


(c) is not the answer because (iii) is wrong


The emblem of the Chola dynasty was not square in shape but round.


It has a jumping tiger and they were also used on coins.


(d) is not the answer because (iv) is wrong


Neythal is not a sandy desert. It has a variety of soil like red, alluvial soil and black soils.


Question 8.

Fill in the blanks:

__________ are documents scripted on stones, copper plates, coins and rings.


Answer:

Calligraphy are documents scripted on stones, copper plates, coins and rings


• Names, places, year, events, and important words were carved so that they are remembered in future times.


• Some stories, documents, proofs, and precious stuff was carved in ancient languages in calligraphy.



Question 9.

Fill in the blanks:

___________ refers to systematically digging a site to recover material evidence for exploring societies of the past.


Answer:

Archaeological Excavation refers to systematically digging a site to recover material evidence for exploring societies of the past.


• It is the action of excavating something, particularly an archaeological site.


• By archaeological definition, ‘excavation is the exposure, processing, and recording of archaeological remains’.



Question 10.

Fill in the blanks:

___________ the classic work on economy and statecraft authored by Kautilya during the Mauryan period.


Answer:

The Arthashastra the classic work on economy and statecraft authored by Kautilya during the Mauryan period.


• It is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy, and military strategy.


• It was written in Sanskrit.


• Kautilya, also recognized as Vishnugupta and Chanakya, is conventionally credited as the author of the text.



Question 11.

Fill in the blanks:

___________ is a poetic theme which means a class or category and refers to a habitat or eco-zone with specific physiographical characteristics.


Answer:

Tinai is a poetic theme which means a class or category and refers to a habitat or eco-zone with specific physiographical characteristics.


• Sangam literature demonstrates the thematic classification scheme first described in the Tolkāppiyam.


• The classification ties the emotions concerned in akam poetry to a specific landscape. These landscapes are called tiṇai.


These are:


1. kuṟinci -mountainous regions


2. Mullai-forests


3. marutam -agricultural land


4. neytal -coastal regions


5. pālai-deserts



Question 12.

Fill in the blanks:

___________ referred to the Westerners, including the Greeks, Romans and West Asian people.


Answer:

Yavanar referred to the Westerners, including the Greeks, Romans and West Asian people.


• The Greeks and Romans were well known to Tamils during the BC era.


• Greeks and Romans were called by a common term ‘Yavanar’ in Tamil.


• These travelers commenced their voyages from the Ionian Sea near Greece, and they were named ‘Ionavar’.


• The etymology evolves like this Ionia-----Ionavar-----Yavanar.



Question 13.

Find out the correct statement:

a) Evidence of iron smelting has been found in Kodumanal and Guttur.

b) Periplus of Erythren Sea mentions about the pepper trade with India.

c) Punch marked coins are the earliest coins used in India mostly made of gold.

d) The Sangam Age has its roots in the Bronze Age.


Answer:

a) is correct. The iron and steel furnaces from Kodumanal and Guttur exposed the technological skill attained by the early smelters in Tamilnadu.


b) is incorrect because Periplus mentions the fine variety of textiles produced in the Tamil region.


c) is incorrect because Punch-marked coins are the earliest coins used in India, made of silver.


d) is incorrect because the Sangam Age has no roots in the Bronze Age.



Question 14.

Find out the correct statement:

a) The Cheras ruled over Kaveri delta and their capital was Uraiyur.

b) The Maangulam Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions mention the King Karikalan.

c) The terms Vanikan and Nigama appear in Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions were different types of merchants.

d) Salt merchants were called Vanikars and they traveled in bullock carts along with their family.


Answer:

c) is correct because Vanikan and Nigama appear in tamil-Brahmi inscriptions.There were different types of merchants: gold merchants, cloth merchants, and salt merchants.


a) is incorrect. Uraiyur was the capital of the early Cholas and Mutharaiyars


b) is incorrect because Karikalan is not mentioned in Maangulam Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions


d) is incorrect because vanikars are not salt merchants. The Specialised groups called vanikars (traders) made the journey in groups trading goods and commodities between regions.



Question 15.

Match the following:



Answer:

1.Epigraphy- the study of inscriptions


It is the science of recognize graphemes, expounding their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and civilizing contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.


2. Chronicle- a narrative text presenting the important historical events


By definition, a chronicle is a factual written account of important or historical events in the order of their occurrence.


3. Pastoralism- nomadic people earning a livelihood by rearing cattle


Pastoralism is the way of nomadic people who bring in livelihood by rearing cattle, sheep, and goat.


4. Cameo- an ornament made in precious stone


Cameo is an ornament. It is made in precious stone where images are carved on the surface.


5. Arikkamedu- a Sangam Age port


Arikamedu, the ancient Roman trade port on the right bank of Ariyankuppam River.



Question 16.

Answer the following questions briefly:

Archaeological sites provide evidence of past history - Discuss.


Answer:

Archaeology is the study of the earliest and recent human past through material remnants. It is a subfield of anthropology, the study of all human civilization.


1) Archaeological sites offer an exclusive viewpoint on human history and culture.


2) It helps in contributing greatly to our understanding of both the ancient and the recent past.


3) It helps us understand where and when people lived on the earth.


4) It also helps in knowing why and how ancient people have lived.


5) It helps in examining the changes and causes of changes that have occurred in human cultures over time.


6) It helps in seeking patterns and explanations of patterns to explain everything from how and when people first developed societal life.


7) Helps in examining written records and documents to understand great lives and events.


8) It allows us to go far back into the time before written languages existed.



Question 17.

Answer the following questions briefly:

How important are coins as a source of evidence for the study of Sangam Age?


Answer:

The categorical study of coins during the Sangam age includes:

• Punch Marked coins from Magadha


• Roman coins of Phoenicians


• Punch marked silver, lead coins


It occupies an important study material from the ancient history of Tamil revolves around the coins. The coins were found very recently as a result of the archaeological excavations.


Therefore, coins discovered actually help scholars to be acquainted with everything or important things about the Sangam Age.



Question 18.

Answer the following questions briefly:

The Tamil rulers were independent of Mauryan authority. What explanation would you offer.


Answer:

The rulers belonging to the Tamilian state were actually not dependent on the Mauryan authority. It is a fact that there is actually no history of Mauryan emperors capturing the Tamil rulers during their reign.


It was because of certain unavoidable reasons like:


• terrain posing as a big challenge


• unexplored regions of the Deccan


• defeat in the Kalinga War


• the language was a barrier


• the fear of elephants



Question 19.

Answer the following questions briefly:

Agriculture was one of the main sources of subsistence in the Sangam Age. Give reasons.


Answer:

• Agriculture was the main sources of income in the Sangam age.


• Subsistence in the Sangam Age was through agriculture because the technology wasn't very much advanced.


• People didn't have much knowledge about anything other than agriculture.


• Agriculture was the only thing they saw most people doing and that is how they learned and it kept going on


• It became the single source of subsistence for the people of that time.


• Agriculture was the only reliable source which never finished and the more they worked, the more they yielded.



Question 20.

Answer the following questions briefly:

Overseas interactions brought glory to ancient Tamilagam. Give examples in support.


Answer:

• Overseas interaction and trading were conducted primarily by merchant associations and commercial institutions.


• Foreign trade brought in a large amount of internationally convertible Roman currency.


• Merchants formed cultural associations that operated autonomously, without interference from the state.


• The items like Pepper, pearls, ivory, textiles and gold ornaments were exported from Tamilakam.


• The main import goods were luxury goods such as glass, coral, wine, and topaz.


• For example, the people of ancient Tamil country engaged in brisk overseas trade with Rome. This trade reached a peak after the detection of a nonstop route for merchant ships linking Tamilakam and Egypt, taking advantage of the monsoon winds.


• The state played an important role in making and maintaining infrastructures such as roads and ports because of trade


• Trade and overseas interactions help in the funding through taxation to meet the needs of economic and social activity.



Question 21.

Answer all the questions given under each caption:

Hero Stones:

a. What was the common practice in a pastoral society?

b. Who plundered the cattle wealth of enemies?

c. How were the dead warriors remembered?

d. Which Tamil text describes the procedures for erecting hero stones?


Answer:

a. A hero stone is called Viragallu in Kannada and Naṭukal in Tamil.


• It is a memorial to honor the respectable death of a hero in battle.


• It was erected between the 3rd century BC and the 18th century AD.


• Hero stones are found all over India.


• They often bear inscriptions displaying a variety of adornments, including bas-relief panels, painting, and figures on carved stone.


b. The tribal chieftains plundered the cattle wealth of enemies.


• The Sangam Age witnessed the Mullai landscape following the pastoral way of life.


• Many warriors died were honored as martyrs.


• Memorial stones were erected in their honor.


c. Many warriors died were honored as martyrs.


• Memorial stones were erected in their honor.


• These hero stones are worshipped.


d. Tholkappiyam describes the procedures for erecting hero stones.


• Pulimankombai and Thathapatti in Theni district and Porpanaikottai bear its evidence.



Question 22.

Answer all the questions given under each caption:

Non - Tamil Sources (Foreign Accounts)

a. What does the presence of the non-Tamil sources reveal?

b. Name the classic work of the Mauryan period that makes mention that the pearl and shells came from Pandya country.

c. What is a chronicle?

d. Who speaks about the pepper trade between the Roman Empire and India?


Answer:

a. Non-Tamil literary sources offer information on early Tamil society. The presence of the non-Tamil sources reveals the extensive contacts and interactions, engagements, trade and other exchanges of tamilakam with the whole world.


b. Arthashastra is an ancient Indian discourse on statecraft, economic policy, and military strategy. The book is written in Sanskrit. It is written by several authors over centuries, like Kautilya, Vishnugupta and Chanakya.


c. A chronicle is a record (a series of events) in a factual and detailed way. By definition, chronicle is ‘a factual written account of important or historical events in the order of their occurrence.’


d. Pliny the Elder, the Roman speaks about pepper trade between India and Rome. Pliny the Elder was a Roman author, naturalist, natural philosopher and commander of the early Roman Empire.


• He explains not only about the trade but also about the features of pepper.



Question 23.

Answer all the questions given under each caption:

Industries and Crafts of the Sangam Age

a. What were the important aspects of urbanization?

b. What is the Tamil name for a potter?

c. What were the different types of pottery used by the people?

d. Identify the Iron implements required for agriculture and warfare


Answer:

a. There are two aspects of urbanization.


1) Villages specializing some work for livelihood.


For example, some specialize in black smithy, pottery, carpentry, cloth weaving etc.


2) The gathering of specialized craftsmen in villages to places where raw materials were available and where markets were present.


These processes result in urbanization.


b. Kalamceyko is the Tamil name for a potter. The Tamil Nadu potters are commonly called Kuyavar (kuyavar). This is the reverential form of Kuyavan from the Sanskrit Ku, "earth," and Evan, "person".


c. Black ware,


Russet-coated painted ware,


Black and red ware potteries were used by Tamil ancient people.


d. swords, daggers, and spears were used by ancient Tamil people.


• They used it for war and agriculture.



Question 24.

Answer the following in detail:

To what extent do you think the political powers of Tamilagam influenced Sangam Age polity?


Answer:

Sangam Age', extends between 300 B.C. and 300 A.D. The Tamil Sangam was an Academy of poets and bards. They flourished in three different periods and in different places. It was under the patronage of the Tamil kings. 'Sangam' is derived from the Sanskrit word "Sangha" meaning a group of persons or an association.


There were three Sangam periods


1) Head Sangam


2) Middle Sangam


3) Last Sangam period


The political structure of Sangam age


1) The kings.


a) A king was called vendar.


b) The umbrella, the staff, and drum were symbols of a king's power. War and conquest were glorified.


c) A king who won against seven others was called a vijigishu.


d) The most powerful king was supposed to undertake a digvijaya – a triumphant expedition in a clockwise way over the whole of India.


e) The king’s sabha or manram was the highest court of justice.


2) The chieftains.


a) Several minor chieftains ruled parts of the Tamil country.


b) The vel/velar or chieftain was less powerful than the crowned kings.


c) The Sangam poets honour some of the velirs, especially those known as the Seven Patrons, for their kindness to the poets.


d) Kapilar and Avvaiyar talk about chieftains like Ay, Andiran, Pari, Adaigaman and Tagadur.


3) Administration during Sangham age


a) Inscriptions mention about subordinate rulers and officers.


b) Pandya writings mention officers for pearl fisheries (kalatika) and the chief scribes (kanatikan).


4) Government structure


a) A government with a simple structure existed.


b) The kings and chieftains had more manage over urban areas.


c) There were officers to make agreements in foreign trade and customs revenue was an important part of the financial plan.


LEGITIMIZATION OF POWER


The kings depended on poets and religious leaders for legality. They were well-known with the Vedas, performed Vedic rituals, and also holded up Brahmins.


Polity in a different periods



Thus the Sangam age literature was interconnected with the political structure and condition of the early tamilakam. The subjects of literature were varied from the praise of Kings to other social issues. The political powers of Tamilakam influenced Sangam Age polity in a varied and extended way. The Sangam age literature is the most flourished one of all times.



Question 25.

Answer the following in detail:

Indicate how the industries and crafts of the Sangam Age contribute to their economy.


Answer:

The Sangam Age is important and unique because of its social, economic, religious and cultural features. There was an integrated development during this period. The Sangam literature and the archaeological findings reveal the developments in the economy of the period.


It is important to note that the Tamil society was not organized on the basis of the Vedic caste.


The economyof Sangam age


1) Weaving and spinning were the most significant crafts of the Sangam period which contributed to the economy.


2) Uraiyur and Madurai were the chief centers for the manufacture of cotton fabrics.


3) The weavers created and fine cotton clothes were sold overseas.


4) The word Kalingam refers to very nice garments during the Sangam age.


5) The Sangam literature demotes to clothes, which were thinner than steam.


6) Silk clothes were also produced in the Tamil country.


7) Other craftsmen like the carpenter, blacksmith, goldsmith, and potter had done their respective occupations.


8) Fishing and hunting were also important occupation and played their role in the economy during this period.


NATURE OF ECONOMIC TRANSACTION


The beginning of the Sangam Age


• The barter system of trade was followed.


• People exchanged their merchandise with their neighbors.


• For example, the people of Kurinji region exchanged honey with the people of Neydal region for attainment fish and salt.


• The Mullai people gave their milk products to Marudham people to acquire rice from them.


Later stage of Sangam period


• They began to use coins, trade picked up rapidly.


• Local markets came up and they were known as Angadis.


• Day Market (Nalangadi) and Evening Bazaar (Allangadi) existed in port towns.


• The Pattinappalai refers to their subsistence at Puhar.


• Goods from far-away places were brought to these markets.


• The growth of trade led to the growth of towns.


• Export of goods to other countries had increased.


• People started learning new crafts and ventured into new occupations like carpentry, fishing, blacksmiths, ship building etc.


Thus export of the finished goods to other countries helped the economy of that time. Based on the archaeological findings, it was exposed that Sangam Age people’s industries and trade of handicrafts helped the economy and accelerated it.




Fun With History
Question 1.

Student Activities

Mark on the map of south India, the ancient Tamilagam and the territories of Tamil kingdoms.


Answer:



Question 2.

Student Activities

Visit a museum and collect information about inscriptions, coins and instruments used by the ancient people.


Answer:

Museums gave informal learning environments. They help in informal education. Such kind of learning is a lifelong process. In this procedure, the individual acquires attitudes, values, skills, and knowledge from daily experience, observation, analysis etc. Museums increase one’s curiosity for educational resources. The information about the inscriptions, coins and coins used by ancient people is described in the following passages.




six groups of silver coins and a group of copper coins with the symbol of fish on its back





7




Mauryan period




322 - 180 BCE




Copper coins with fish-symbol




Pictures of ancient coins


1) 


2) 


3) 


4) 


Ancient tools



Ancient musical instruments


1) 


2) 


Farming instruments


1) 


Stone tools


1) 



Question 3.

Student Activities

Visit the early historic sites of Arikkamedu, Kaveripoompattinam, Keezhadi etc.


Answer:

I. ARIKKAMEDU


Arikamedu is an archaeological site in Southern India. It is located on the bank of the Ariyankuppam River. The excavated area of the hillock was distinguished into two zones on the basis of occupation and elevation.


Important findings at Arikamedu


• Indo-Pacific beads


• Red and black ceramics (known as megalithic stones or Pandukal)


GREY POTTERIES



Old brick built building structure



II. KAVERIPOOMPATTINAM


"Kaveripoompattinam" is also called Poompuhar. It is an ancient historic town situated in Sirkali Taluk (also spelled as Taluka) of Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu.


Important findings in excavations


a) Revealed the width of expert planning.


b) Remains of the various buildings were found.


c) A wharf belonging to the 3rd century BC was excavated in 1962-63


d) A similar wharf was unearthed in the successive excavation during 1997.


e) Several kinds of brick figures and copper coins were also found.


EXCAVATION SITE AT KAVERIPOOMPATTINAM



III. KEEZHADI


Keezhadi is a small village near Silaiman on the border between Madurai and Sivagangai districts in Tamil Nadu, India. The excavation in Keeladi revealed a Sangam era settlement dated to the 2nd century BCE by radiocarbon dating. archaeological excavation was carried out from Theni to Ramanathapuram.293 sites have been identified including Keeladi.


EXCAVATION SITES AT KEEZHADI


1) 


2) 



Question 4.

Student Activities

Conduct a study on materials excavated from prehistoric sites and on Tamil - Brahmi script.


Answer:

Tamil Nadu possesses a very rich history and several monuments from ancient time. It also has the largest collection of heritage buildings in India.


The famous historic buildings and national monuments are:


1) Subrahmanya Temple


2) Jambai Malai


3) Kamarajar Mani Mantapa Monument


4) Vivekananda House


5) Freemasons Hall Chennai


6) Sittanavasal Cave


7) Kamaraj Memorial House


8) Thanjavur Palace


9) Madras War Cemetery


THE SUBRAHMANYA TEMPLE


a) The Subrahmanya Temple is a shrine dedicated to god Murugan.


b) This temple is in Saluvankuppam and Tamil Nadu's oldest Murugan shrine


c) It which was excavated in 2005,


d) It is a two-layered shrine.


e) The first layer is a brick temple built during Sangam period (3rd BC - 3rd AD)


f) the Pallava temple (on top of it ) is built in granite dates back to 8th C.


g) Tsunami in 2004 exposed the inscriptions of it.


h) This temple is considered.


i) Artifacts like shivalinga, terracotta Nandi (bull of Shiva), head of a woman, terracotta lamps have also been found in the site.


TAMIL - BRAHMI SCRIPT.


a) Jambai Village is one of the well-known archaeological sites in Tamil Nadu.


b) Evidence of Tamil Brahmin script is found in Jambai malai.


c) Jambai is a small village in Villupuram,Tamil nadu.


d) It has a heritage of more than 1000 years old.


e) The village gets its name from the Jambunatheshwara temple belonging to the Chola period.


f) Jambai has been influenced by various religions: Jainism, Buddhism, Shaivism, Shaktism (belief in Divine Mother).


g) Inside the cave, Tamil Brahmi inscriptions are discovered which belongs to 1 B.C.


h) there are many other Tamil inscriptions of 10th C.


PDF FILE TO YOUR EMAIL IMMEDIATELY PURCHASE NOTES & PAPER SOLUTION. @ Rs. 50/- each (GST extra)

HINDI ENTIRE PAPER SOLUTION

MARATHI PAPER SOLUTION

SSC MATHS I PAPER SOLUTION

SSC MATHS II PAPER SOLUTION

SSC SCIENCE I PAPER SOLUTION

SSC SCIENCE II PAPER SOLUTION

SSC ENGLISH PAPER SOLUTION

SSC & HSC ENGLISH WRITING SKILL

HSC ACCOUNTS NOTES

HSC OCM NOTES

HSC ECONOMICS NOTES

HSC SECRETARIAL PRACTICE NOTES

2019 Board Paper Solution

HSC ENGLISH SET A 2019 21st February, 2019

HSC ENGLISH SET B 2019 21st February, 2019

HSC ENGLISH SET C 2019 21st February, 2019

HSC ENGLISH SET D 2019 21st February, 2019

SECRETARIAL PRACTICE (S.P) 2019 25th February, 2019

HSC XII PHYSICS 2019 25th February, 2019

CHEMISTRY XII HSC SOLUTION 27th, February, 2019

OCM PAPER SOLUTION 2019 27th, February, 2019

HSC MATHS PAPER SOLUTION COMMERCE, 2nd March, 2019

HSC MATHS PAPER SOLUTION SCIENCE 2nd, March, 2019

SSC ENGLISH STD 10 5TH MARCH, 2019.

HSC XII ACCOUNTS 2019 6th March, 2019

HSC XII BIOLOGY 2019 6TH March, 2019

HSC XII ECONOMICS 9Th March 2019

SSC Maths I March 2019 Solution 10th Standard11th, March, 2019

SSC MATHS II MARCH 2019 SOLUTION 10TH STD.13th March, 2019

SSC SCIENCE I MARCH 2019 SOLUTION 10TH STD. 15th March, 2019.


SSC SCIENCE II MARCH 2019 SOLUTION 10TH STD. 18th March, 2019.

SSC SOCIAL SCIENCE I MARCH 2019 SOLUTION20th March, 2019

SSC SOCIAL SCIENCE II MARCH 2019 SOLUTION, 22nd March, 2019

XII CBSE - BOARD - MARCH - 2019 ENGLISH - QP + SOLUTIONS, 2nd March, 2019

HSC Maharashtra Board Papers 2020

(Std 12th English Medium)

HSC ECONOMICS MARCH 2020

HSC OCM MARCH 2020

HSC ACCOUNTS MARCH 2020

HSC S.P. MARCH 2020

HSC ENGLISH MARCH 2020

HSC HINDI MARCH 2020

HSC MARATHI MARCH 2020

HSC MATHS MARCH 2020

SSC Maharashtra Board Papers 2020

(Std 10th English Medium)

English MARCH 2020

HindI MARCH 2020

Hindi (Composite) MARCH 2020

Marathi MARCH 2020

Mathematics (Paper 1) MARCH 2020

Mathematics (Paper 2) MARCH 2020

Sanskrit MARCH 2020

Sanskrit (Composite) MARCH 2020

Science (Paper 1) MARCH 2020

Science (Paper 2)

Geography Model Set 1 2020-2021

MUST REMEMBER THINGS on the day of Exam

Are you prepared? for English Grammar in Board Exam.

Paper Presentation In Board Exam

How to Score Good Marks in SSC Board Exams

Tips To Score More Than 90% Marks In 12th Board Exam

How to write English exams?

How to prepare for board exam when less time is left

How to memorise what you learn for board exam

No. 1 Simple Hack, you can try out, in preparing for Board Exam

How to Study for CBSE Class 10 Board Exams Subject Wise Tips?

JEE Main 2020 Registration Process – Exam Pattern & Important Dates


NEET UG 2020 Registration Process Exam Pattern & Important Dates

How can One Prepare for two Competitive Exams at the same time?

8 Proven Tips to Handle Anxiety before Exams!

BUY FROM PLAY STORE

DOWNLOAD OUR APP

HOW TO PURCHASE OUR NOTES?

S.P. Important Questions For Board Exam 2021

O.C.M. Important Questions for Board Exam. 2021

Economics Important Questions for Board Exam 2021

Chemistry Important Question Bank for board exam 2021

Physics – Section I- Important Question Bank for Maharashtra Board HSC Examination

Physics – Section II – Science- Important Question Bank for Maharashtra Board HSC 2021 Examination