Lord Cornwallis (a.d. 1786 - A.d. 1793) Class 8th Social Science Term 2 Tamilnadu Board Solution

Class 8th Social Science Term 2 Tamilnadu Board Solution
Exercise
  1. Lord Cornwallis become the Governor General of Bengal in ………………… Choose the correct…
  2. During the Third Anglo- Mysore War, Tipu attacked …………… a Hindu State in South India.…
  3. ………………. Is called the Father of Indian Civil Service. Choose the correct answer:…
  4. The Fourth Anglo-Mysore war was fought in………….. Choose the correct answer:…
  5. Match the following:1. Permanent Revenue SettlementLord Wellesley2. Subsidiary…
  6. The permanent land revenue settlement was introduced in ______. Fill in the blanks:…
  7. ___________created a permanent police force in India. Fill in the blanks:…
  8. A new code of regulation known as Cornwallis code was compiled by____________. Fill in the…
  9. Lord Wellesley become the Governor General in ______. Fill in the blanks:…
  10. Who were the worst affected by the ‘permanent settlement’? Answer in a word:…
  11. What policy did Wellesley follow? Answer in a word:
  12. Who was the first Indian ruler to join the subsidiary alliance? Answer in a word:…
Activity
  1. The Indian Civil Service was called the backbone of the British Rule of India. Prepare a…
  2. On the river map of India, mark the extent of the British Empire under Wellesley.…
Formative Assessment
  1. Prepare a scroll:Prepare an information scroll about the reforms of Lord Cornwallis.…
  2. Report:Prepare a report on why Tipu Sultan was called as ‘’Tiger of Mysore’’.…
  3. Complete the given table:Prepare a chart on the four Mysore wars.WarYearCausesEventsTreaty…
  4. Debate:The subsidiary system of Lord Wellesley cured the independent nature of native…
  5. Trace the growth of the British Rule in India from the 17th to 20th centuries.• Entry into…

Exercise
Question 1.

Choose the correct answer:

Lord Cornwallis become the Governor General of Bengal in …………………

A. 1786

B. 1787

C. 1788


Answer:

Lord Cornwallis became the Governor General of India in 1786. He held the office from 1786 to 1793 representing the British Government and answerable to the Board of Control. He introduced the Permanent Land Revenue Settlement of Bengal and also introduced the Zamindari system to collect the revenue.


Question 2.

Choose the correct answer:

During the Third Anglo- Mysore War, Tipu attacked …………… a Hindu State in South India.

A. Oudh

B. Travancore

C. Carnatic


Answer:

Travancore which is a Hindu state in South India was being attacked by the Tipu Sultan during the third Anglo- Mysore War. This was the main reason which led to the way the British declared war against Tipu Sultan in 1790.


Question 3.

Choose the correct answer:

………………. Is called the Father of Indian Civil Service.

A. John Shore

B. Cornwallis

C. Wellesley


Answer:

Cornwallis is known to be the Father of India Civil Service because it was Cornwallis who introduced the new Administrative Civil Service system. The civil servants were appointed to the British territories mainly in India.


Question 4.

Choose the correct answer:

The Fourth Anglo-Mysore war was fought in…………..

A. 1789

B. 1799

C. 1779


Answer:

The Fourth Anglo-Mysore war was fought by the Tipu Sultan and the British in the year 1799. This war was the result of the rage to recover the territories of the Tipu Sultan from the British. With the defeat and death of the Tipu in Srirangapatinam, the war came to an end in 1799.


Question 5.

Match the following:



Answer:

1. Permanent Revenue Settlement – Lord Cornwallis


Explanation


Lord Cornwallis became the Governor General of India in 1786. He held the office from 1786 to 1793 representing the British Government and answerable to the Board of Control. He introduced the Permanent Land Revenue Settlement of Bengal and also introduced the Zamindari system to collect the revenue.


2. Subsidiary Alliance – Lord Wellesley


Explanation


Lord Wellesley was Governor General of India from 1796 – 1805. He followed the policy of expanding the British Territory and the expansion was followed by the Subsidiary Alliance. Lord Wellesley introduced the Subsidiary Alliance which was to bring the Princely States under the control of British. This alliance allowed the British to expand their army that too with the expense of the local rulers.


3. Sir John Shore – Non-intervention


Explanation


Sir John Shore was the Governor General of Bengal from 1793 to 1797, who was the successor of Lord Cornwallis. He followed the policy of Non-intervention; this policy led to the growth of the French Subsidiary force and also increased the invasion of Mahrattas.


4. Third Anglo-Mysore War – Treaty of Srirangapatnam


Explanation


Travancore which is a Hindu state in South India was being attacked by the Tipu Sultan during the third Anglo- Mysore War. This was the main reason which led to the way the British declared war against Tipu Sultan in 1790. In this war Tipu was defeated by the British and also Treaty of Sirangapatnam was being signed by the Tipu and the British in 1792.



Question 6.

Fill in the blanks:

The permanent land revenue settlement was introduced in ______.


Answer:

1793


Explanation


Lord Cornwallis became the Governor General of India in 1786. He held the office from 1786 to 1793 representing the British Government and answerable to the Board of Control. He introduced the Permanent Land Revenue Settlement of Bengal in 1793.



Question 7.

Fill in the blanks:

___________created a permanent police force in India.


Answer:

Lord Cornwallis


Explanation


When Lord Cornwallis was the Governor General of India, he created the permanent police force in India. The first Commissioner of Police was being appointed in Calcutta in 1790. In both civil service and police force Indians were excluded from the higher posts.



Question 8.

Fill in the blanks:

A new code of regulation known as Cornwallis code was compiled by____________.


Answer:

Sir George Barlow


Explanation


Sir George Barlow was acting Governor-General of India from the death of Lord Cornwallis in 1805. He was acting Governor-General till the arrival of Lord Minto in 1807. The new code of regulations known as the Cornwallis Code was compiled by Sir George Barlow. This code contained significant provisions regarding governing, policing and civil administration.



Question 9.

Fill in the blanks:

Lord Wellesley become the Governor General in ______.


Answer:

1796


Explanation


Lord Wellesley became the Governor General of Bengal in 1796. Lord Wellesley was Governor General of India from 1796 – 1805. He followed the policy of expanding the British Territory and the expansion was followed by the Subsidiary Alliance. Lord Wellesley introduced the Subsidiary Alliance which was to bring the Princely States under the control of British. This alliance allowed the British to expand their army that too with the expense of the local rulers.



Question 10.

Answer in a word:

Who were the worst affected by the ‘permanent settlement’?


Answer:

Cultivators


Explanation


The permanent settlement is the agreement which is known as Permanent Settlement of Bengal. This was an agreement between the landlords in Bengal and East India Company for raising the revenues from the land. The cultivators were the worst affected by this settlement because of huge tax collection.



Question 11.

Answer in a word:

What policy did Wellesley follow?


Answer:

He followed the policy of expansion.


Explanation


Lord Wellesley followed the policy of expansion and also tried to extend the British territories through the Subsidiary Alliance system. Lord Wellesley introduced the Subsidiary Alliance which was to bring the Princely States under the control of British. This alliance allowed the British to expand their army that too with the expense of the local rulers.



Question 12.

Answer in a word:

Who was the first Indian ruler to join the subsidiary alliance?


Answer:

Nizam of Hyderabad


Explanation


Lord Wellesley introduced the Subsidiary Alliance which was to bring the Princely States under the control of British. This alliance allowed the British to expand their army that too with the expense of the local rulers. The Nizam of Hyderabad was the first ruler to enter into the subsidiary alliance.




Activity
Question 1.

The Indian Civil Service was called the backbone of the British Rule of India. Prepare a report on the Indian Civil Service tracing its growth from its inception to its current form as the Indian Administrative Service.


Answer:

Indian Civil Service in British Rule (1858-1947)


• The Indian Civil Service (ICS) in the 19th century, during the British rule it was officially known as Imperial Civil Service.


• The civil service was founded by the Warren Hasting and it was eventually reformed by the Charles Cornwallis.


• Cornwallis was the person who modernised the civil service. He introduced the two division in the civil service that is – covenanted and uncovenanted. In this covenanted were consisted the only British officials and uncovenanted was introduced to the entry of Indian into the service. But uncovenanted was the lower rank posts in the civil service posts.


• Government of India Act 1919


• The Imperial Services headed by the Secretary of State for India was split into two—the All India Services and the Central Services.


• All India Services and Central Services of Group A was designated as Central Superior services.


This Indian civil service helped to rule British India very efficiently. These service members helped to rule more than 300 million people in whole British India. They were appointed by the section XXXII of Government of India Act 1858, which was enacted by the Parliament of United Kingdom. These covenanted officials were from British with highly qualified education. This is why the Indian Civil Service was called the backbone of the British Rule of India.


After the partition of India and Pakistan (Modern Era 1947- till date)


• It was Sardar Valabai Patel gave importance to the civil service and he strengthens the civil service to maintain the integrity and national unity of India.


• Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) was established in the constitution of India. It is the central recruiting agency of India. It is the independent constitutional body which is directly created by the constitution.


• Articles 315-323 in Part XIV of constitution contain an elaborate provision regarding the composition, appointment and removal of members in the UPSC.


• The constitution under Article 312 gives authority to the Rajya Sabha (the upper house of Parliament) to set up new branches of the All India Services with a two-thirds majority vote. The Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service, and Indian Forest Service have been established under this constitutional provision.


This is the growth of Indian civil service from the Imperial service to the current form of Indian Administrative Service. The values of integrity, impartiality, and merit remain the guiding principles of the Indian civil services.



Question 2.

On the river map of India, mark the extent of the British Empire under Wellesley.


Answer:




Formative Assessment
Question 1.

Prepare a scroll:

Prepare an information scroll about the reforms of Lord Cornwallis.


Answer: 


Question 2.

Report:

Prepare a report on why Tipu Sultan was called as ‘’Tiger of Mysore’’.


Answer:

Tipu Sultan is known to be the first freedom fighter against British India. He was the ruler of the Mysore Kingdom and also he is known as the ‘Tiger of Mysore'. Tipu Sultan was a great warrior who fought against the British invasion of India during the late 1790s. Tipu Sultan was born in the year 1753 near the city of Mysore. His father Hyder Ali was a great ruler and so was Tipu Sultan. He was a great fighter and soldier and was highly educated in all matters. He built several forts to protect his kingdom, for example, the Dorrg fort. Tipu Sultan enhanced a number of administrative reforms during his rule, including his coinage, a new Mauludi lunisolar calendar, and a new land revenue system which initiated the growth of the Mysore silk industry.


Tipu had a great interest in art as well as architecture. He won important victories against the British in the Second Anglo-Mysore War and negotiated the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore with them. He has also fought in the Third and Fourth Anglo-Mysore War. He received help from Turkey and France to fight against the British. Even though both the wars where favourable to the British, but this has gained remarkable attention towards Tipu Sultan because his army was Very much compared to the British army. He was famously known as the "Tiger of Mysore". The tiger was his official emblem and was embellished upon his throne and military uniforms worn by soldiers. Also, he has defeated the wild tiger without any weapons with him. He was the most powerful warrior known in Indian History. He died during the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War on 4th May 1799 and was laid to rest in Srirangapatnam.


He was one of the undefeatable warriors in South India, therefore he was known as the Tiger of Mysore. He was very defending his kingdom from the British Empire for a long decade.



Question 3.

Complete the given table:

Prepare a chart on the four Mysore wars.



Answer: 


Question 4.

Debate:

The subsidiary system of Lord Wellesley cured the independent nature of native rulers – Debate in your class.


Answer:

Lord Wellesley introduced the Subsidiary Alliance which was to bring the Princely States under the control of British. This alliance allowed the British to expand their army that too with the expense of the local rulers. The Nizam of Hyderabad was the first ruler to enter into the subsidiary alliance.


The debate in Favour if the subsidiary alliance


• The native ruler who became a subsidiary ally of the English would be protected by the Company's government against foreign attack. This was the major advantage for the small and weak rulers to protect their kingdom.


• The first native ruler who accepted the Subsidiary Alliance was the Nizam of Hyderabad. Lord Wellesley also forced the Nawab of Oudh to accept it.


• This system of a subsidiary alliance made the British rule stronger in India. The East India Company became the authority to rule the country.


• This system helped them to rule much more efficiently and also their trade was also made much easier.


• The governorship was in the hands of British and this gave the Indians the chance to unite as they felt really oppressed by their rule.


• Local armies training was obtained by the British, this has led to the stronger part of the Indian army.


Debate against the subsidiary alliance


• The Indian rulers and administrators lost their administrative and judicial powers. These powers were transferred to the hands of the British through this system.


• The rulers were forced to pay a huge amount of subsidy for the protection that was received by the British force. This led to the oppression of the Indian rulers in the Indian kingdom.


• The independence and the sovereignty of the states were entirely lost due to this system of the subsidiary alliance.


• Due to lack of practising their authority the Indian rulers were heavily demoralized and grew weaker.



Question 5.

Trace the growth of the British Rule in India from the 17th to 20th centuries.

• Entry into Indian trade

• Acquisition of a few trade areas and warehouses.

• Control of Indian states

• The complete subjugation of India.

Use the above hints and write a few sentences on each.


Answer:

Initially British were not interested in India, they just invaded the country for the spices and crop that only rich in India. The same was the intention of Dutch and Portuguese, trading the spices and other crops. When the British could not avoid the influence of the Dutch and Portugal in the trade practice, their interest increased in India.


In 1612, the British established a Tradepost in the Gujarat, Surat. In 1614, Sir Thomas who was the official of the East India Company signed the commercial treaty with Jahangir to trade much more efficiently. The first set of factories was started in Ahmedabad, Broach and Agra.


In 1640, they established their outpost at Madras. In 1661, the East India Company managed to obtain Bombay from Charles II and by 1668, converted it into a flourishing trade centre.


The winning of the Battle of Plassey and battle of Buxar was the step of stone to the political rule of British in India. These battles took place in 1764 and this led to the emergence of power in Bengal, Bihar and Orrisa.


There where famous wars which were led by the British, which made them stronger in India.


• First Anglo Mysore War (1767–69): Hyder Ali had to face the British Bombay Army attacking west and Madras Army attacking the east. Hyder Ali gained over the Madras and treaty was signed


• Second Anglo Mysore War 1780–84 Tipu defeated Baillie at the Battle of Pollilur in September 1780, and Braithwaite at Kumbakonam in February 1782. 1784 Treaty of Mangalore was signed and the war ended with this treaty


• Third Anglo Mysore War 1790–92 Tipu had to surrender half of his kingdom to the British and its allies. 1794 the treaty of Srirangapatnam was signed. This was followed by the defeat of the Tipu.


• Fourth Anglo Mysore War 1798- 99: Tipu’s army was outnumbered compared to the British Army. British won the victory and Tipu was killed during this war.


• The death of Tipu Sultan has led to the second Anglo Maratha War in 1803.


• Third Maratha War (1817-1818) which ended the powerful Maratha rule. The British ultimately won


The British have fought many wars between the years of the 1760s to 1824. After 1824 they had captured most of the power in India. This increase in the power of East India Company has emerged the Sepoy mutiny in 1857. After this Mutiny, the British rule was transferred to the crown rule and entire India was controlled by the British.


This was the growth of the British in India with the small brief.


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