Nelson Mandela Long Walk To Freedom Class 10th First Flight CBSE Solution

Class 10th First Flight CBSE Solution
Oral Comprehension Check Pg-18
  1. Where did the ceremonies take place? Can you name any public buildings in India that are…
  2. Can you say how May 10 is an autumn day in South Africa?
  3. At the beginning of his speech, Mandela mentions an extraordinary human disaster. What is…
  4. What does Mandela thank the international leaders for?
  5. What ideals does he sent out for the future of South Africa?
Oral Comprehension Check Pg-21
  1. What do the military generals do? How has their attitude changed, and why?…
  2. Why were two national anthems sung?
  3. How does Mandela describe the system of government in his country (i) in the first decade;…
  4. What does courage mean to Mandela?
  5. What does he think is natural, to love or to hate?
Oral Comprehension Check Pg-24
  1. What twin obligations does Mandela mention?
  2. What did being free mean to Mandela as a boy and as a student? How does he contrast these…
  3. Does Mandela thinks the oppressor is free? Why/why not?
Thinking About The Text
  1. Why did such a large number of international leaders attend the inauguration? What did it…
  2. What does Mandela mean when he says he is simply the sum of all those African patriots who…
  3. Would you agree that the depths of oppression create heights of character? How does…
  4. How did Mandelas understanding of freedom change with age and experience?…
  5. How did Mandelas hunger for freedom change his life?
Thinking About Language
  1. Make a list of such pairs of nouns and verbs in the text. Noun Verb Rebellion Rebel…
  2. Read the paragraph below. Fill in the blanks with the noun forms of the verbs in brackets.…
  3. Using the Definite Article with Names You know that the definite article the is not…
  4. Idiomatic Expressions Match the italicized phrases in column A with the phrase nearest in…
  5. Speech on true liberty is freedom from poverty deprivation and all forms of discrimination…
Writing
  1. Looking at contrasts Nelson Mandelas writing is marked by balance: Many sentences have two…
  2. This text repeatedly contrast the past with the present or the future. We can use…
  3. Do you think there is a color prejudice in our own country? Write a paragraph of about 100…
A Tiger In The Zoo - Thinking About The Poem
  1. Read the poem again, and work in pairs or groups to do the following tasks. (i) Find the…
  2. Notice the use of the word repeated in lines such as these: (i) On pads of velvet quite,…
  3. Read the following two poems - one about a tiger and other about a panther. Then discuss:…
  4. Take a point of view for or against zoos or even consider both points of view…

Oral Comprehension Check Pg-18
Question 1.

Where did the ceremonies take place? Can you name any public buildings in India that are made of sandstone?


Answer:

The ceremonies took place in the Union Buildings amphitheater in Pretoria. It was a special occasion. There are many public buildings in India that are made of sandstone such as the Red Fort, the Hawa Mahal, The Jama Masjid, etc.



Question 2.

Can you say how May 10 is ‘an autumn day’ in South Africa?


Answer:

May 10 is an ‘autumn day’ in South Africa because on this day the democratic government took oath. In autumn season, old leaves fall from the trees and new leaves begin to grow, the same analogy is being indicated here.



Question 3.

At the beginning of his speech, Mandela mentions “an extraordinary human disaster.” What is the “glorious………human achievement” he speaks of at the end?


Answer:

At the beginning of his speech, Mandela mentions “an extraordinary human disaster”. It was the policy of apartheid in South Africa under which people were the victims of racial discrimination. Now they had achieved freedom. The “glorious………….human achievement” he speaks of at the end is that they will never be oppressed on the basis of their skin color.



Question 4.

What does Mandela thank the international leaders for?


Answer:

Mandela thanks the international leaders for their support to first anti-racial democratic government in South Africa.



Question 5.

What ideals does he sent out for the future of South Africa?


Answer:

Nelson Mandela sets out many ideals for the future of South Africa. He says that all the people will be free from poverty, deprivation and discrimination. They will never experience oppression by others.




Oral Comprehension Check Pg-21
Question 1.

What do the military generals do? How has their attitude changed, and why?


Answer:

The military generals do their duties. They were always loyal to the rules of the country. Previously they might have arrested Mandela under the regime of the whites, but now they have changed their attitude. They saluted Mandela as he has become the President of South Africa. So, they were loyal to their country and to the President.



Question 2.

Why were two national anthems sung?


Answer:

Two national anthems were sung because they wanted to pay honor and respects to the whites and the blacks equally. Second reason was that it was the pattern to remove all racial differences. One anthem was related to the whites and other was related to the blacks.



Question 3.

How does Mandela describe the system of government in his country (i) in the first decade; and (ii) in the final decade, of the twentieth century?


Answer:

In the first decade of the 20th century, the whites erected a system of racial discrimination against the blacks. They set up the most inhumane system of apartheid where the blacks were denied the fundamental rights of freedom. In the last decade of 20th century, the system was overturned. The policy of apartheid was uprooted and a new non-racial democratic government was installed to set up equal rights.



Question 4.

What does courage mean to Mandela?


Answer:

To Mandela, courage means the triumph over fear. According to him, a brave man is not he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear.



Question 5.

What does he think is natural, to love or to hate?


Answer:

Mandela thinks that to love is natural because the feeling of loving comes to our heart naturally. On the other hand, we have the learn how to hate as this feeling does not develop on itself.




Oral Comprehension Check Pg-24
Question 1.

What ‘twin obligations’ does Mandela mention?


Answer:

Mandela mentions that every man has ‘twin obligations’. The first obligation is towards family, parents, wife and children. The second obligation is to work for his people, community and the nation.



Question 2.

What did being free mean to Mandela as a boy, and as a student? How does he contrast these ‘transitory freedoms’ with ‘the basic and honorable freedoms’?


Answer:

For Mandela, freedom had different meanings at different stages. As a boy, freedom meant to be able to run freely in the fields and to swim in the stream according to his will. As a student, freedom meant to stay out at nights, read whatever pleased him or go wherever he wanted. But later he realized that this sort of freedom was only an illusion. For him, the basis and honorable freedoms were-achieving his potential, earning his keep, marrying and having a family. These freedoms were more important for him when we was a young man.



Question 3.

Does Mandela thinks the oppressor is free? Why/why not?


Answer:

Mandela thinks that the oppressor is not free. This is because a man who takes away other’s freedom is a prisoner of hatred. According to Mandela, neither the oppressor nor the oppressed is free. Both are equal as they are robbed of their humanity.




Thinking About The Text
Question 1.

Why did such a large number of international leaders attend the inauguration? What did it signify the triumph of?


Answer:

A large number of international leaders attended the inauguration ceremony of first democratic non-racial government in South Africa because it was the end of apartheid regime; in real sense, it was the victory of humanity.

It signified the triumph of humanity against discrimination on the basis of color. It was a unique day in the history of South Africa.


Question 2.

What does Mandela mean when he says he is “simply the sum of all those African patriots” who went before him?


Answer:

Mandela wants to say that he was not all alone on the path of freedom. He was guided and inspired by all those African patriots who had contributed to the struggle against oppression. He wished to pay his respect to those who were not there to see the fruitification of their efforts and sacrifices.



Question 3.

Would you agree that the “depths of oppression” create “heights of character”? How does Mandela illustrate this? Can you add your own examples to this argument?


Answer:

Yes, it is true that the depths of oppression create heights of character. World history is full of such examples where oppression produced great leaders. In South Africa, oppression and brutality produced great leaders like-Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisulu, Bram Fisher, Chief Luthuli, Yusuf Dadoo and Mandela himself.


We can say that the history of India is also full of individuals like Subhash Chandra Bose, Chandra Shekhar Azad and Mahatma Gandhi who fought against oppression and showed great character while struggling for national independence.


Question 4.

How did Mandela’s understanding of freedom change with age and experience?


Answer:

Mandela’s understanding of freedom changed with age and experience. He was carefree and felt free during his childhood as he could do all he wanted without having to worry about the outside world. Later in his life, his definition of freedom changed as he desired other things. After gaining experience and perspective, he realized that freedom has been taken away from all the black Africans and he needed to fight to make sure that it is restored.



Question 5.

How did Mandela’s ‘hunger for freedom’ change his life?


Answer:

Mandela was not born with a hunger for freedom. But when he realized that his freedom had been taken away from him, he decided to get it. His decision made him hungry for freedom. Now he had changed in bold, and a man without home. He had won over the fear in his heart. He had only one dream and it was “freedom” to all.




Thinking About Language
Question 1.

Make a list of such pairs of nouns and verbs in the text.


Answer:

Noun: Noun is the name of a person, place or a thing. Examples – Rajeev, New Delhi, Book, etc.


Verb: Verb signifies action in the sentence. Examples – Rebel, install, inaugurate, etc.


 
Question 2.

Read the paragraph below. Fill in the blanks with the noun forms of the verbs in brackets.

Martin Luther King’s…………….(contribute) to our history as an outstanding leader began when he came to the …………..(assist) of Rosa Parks, a seamstress who refused to give her up seat on a bus to a white passenger. In those days American Blacks were confined to positions of second-class citizenship by restrictive laws and customs. To break these laws would mean…………..(subjugate) and…………(humiliate) by the police and the legal system. Beatings, ……………..(imprison) and sometimes death awaited those who defied the system. Martin Luther King’s tactics of protest involved non-violent ……………..(resist) to racial injustice.


Answer:

Martin Luther King’s contribution to our history as an outstanding leader began when he came to the assistance of Rosa Parks, a seamstress who refused to give her up seat on a bus to a white passenger. In those days American Blacks were confined to positions of second-class citizenship by restrictive laws and customs. To break these laws would mean subjugation and humiliation by the police and the legal system. Beatings, imprisonment and sometimes death awaited those who defied the system. Martin Luther King’s tactics of protest involved non-violent resistance to racial injustice.


Question 3.

Using the Definite Article with Names

You know that the definite article ‘the’ is not normally used before proper nouns. Nor do proper nouns usually occur in the plural. (We do not say: *The Nelson Mandela, or *Nelson Mandelas). But now look at this sentence from the text:

…..the decades of oppression and brutality…… produced the Oliver Tambos, the Walter Sisulus,……….of our our time.

Used in this way with the and/ or in the plural, a proper noun carries a special meaning. For example, what do you think the names above mean?

Choose the right answer.

(a) for example Oliver Tambos, Walter Sisulus,……..

(b) Many other men like Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisulu……/many men of their type or kind, whose names may not be as well known.

Did you choose option (b)? Then you have the right answer.

Here are some more examples of ‘the’ used with proper names. Try to say what these sentences mean. (You may consult a dictionary if you wish. Look at the entry for ‘the’).

1. Mr. Singh regularly invites the Amitabh Bachchans and the Shah Rukh Khans to his parties.

2. Many people think that Madhuri Dixit is the Madhubala of our times.

3. History is not only the story of the Alexanders, the Napoleans and the Hitlers, but of ordinary people as well.


Answer:

Articles: A, an and the are Articles. They come before nouns.


There are two types of Articles.


1. Indefinite Articles (a, an)


2. Definite Article (the).


Indefinite Articles – (a, an): ‘An’ is used before a word beginning with a vowel sound and ‘a’ is used before a word beginning with a consonant sound – i.e.:


A boat, a cow, a dog, a fan, a goat, a hen, etc.


An ass, an inkpot, an elephant, an orange, an umbrella, etc.


Note: Some words begin with vowels but they sound like a consonant so ‘a’ should be used before that.


Some words begin with consonants but sound like a vowel, so ‘an’ should be used there.


For example, A one rupee-note.


An honest man.


Definite article: ‘The’ is used before some particular person or things, books, oceans, rivers, etc.


1. In the first sentence, used of ‘the’ before Amitabh Bachchans and Shah Rukh Khan means that Mr. Singh invites all the big stars of film industry to his parties.


2. In the second sentence, use of ‘the’ before Madhubala means Madhuri Dixit has been compared with Madhubala in beauty and quality.


3. In the third sentence, use of ‘the’ before Alexandors, Napoleans and Hitlers means that there are many people like Alexandor, Napolean and Hitler in history.



Question 4.

Idiomatic Expressions

Match the italicized phrases in column A with the phrase nearest in meaning in column B. (Hint: First look for the sentence in the text in which the phrases in column A occurs).


Answer:




Question 5.

In groups, discuss the issues suggested in the box below.

Then prepare a speech of about two minutes on the following table.

(First make notes for your speech in writing).

True liberty is freedom from poverty, deprivation and all forms of discrimination.

•Causes of poverty and means of overcoming it.

•Discrimination based on gender, religion, class, etc.

•Constitutionally guaranteed human rights.


Answer:

Notes


1. Causes of poverty and means to overcome it:



2. Discrimination based on Gender, Religion, Class, etc.



3. Constitutionally Guaranteed Human Rights



Speech:


Respected Principal, teachers and my dear friends!


Today I am here, in front of you to express my views on the topic – True liberty is freedom from poverty, deprivation and all forms of discrimination.


There are many poor people in our country who cannot get food properly. They face a lot of difficulties in their lives. They can never fulfill their basic needs. It has many causes – unemployment, non-technical education; etc. They are not fully aware about their basic rights. To overcome this situation, one must work hard.


There is a lot of discrimination in our society based on gender, religion, class etc. The rich exploit the poor, and woman live at the mercy of men. Everyone should enjoy constitutionally guaranteed rights. Only than we can say that we have true liberty.



Writing
Question 1.

Looking at contrasts

Nelson Mandela’s writing is marked by balance: Many sentences have two parts in balance.

Use the following phrases to complete the sentences given below:

(i) They can be (ii) I was born free

thought to love

(iii) but the triumph (iv) but he who

Over it. Conquers that

Fear

(v) to create such

Heights of character

1. It requires such depths of oppression

…………………….

2. Courage was not the absence of fear

……………………..

3. The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid ……………………

4. If people can learn to hate…………………

5. I was not born with hunger to be free.


Answer:

1. (v) to create such heights of character.


2. (iii) but the triumph over it.


3. (iv) but he who conquers that fear.


4. (i) they can be taught to love.


5. (ii) I was born free



Question 2.

This text repeatedly contrast the past with the present or the future. We can use coordinated clauses to contrast two views, for emphasis or effect.

Given below are sentences carrying one part of the contrast. Find in the text the second part of the contrast, and complete each item.

Identify the words which signal the contrast. This has been done for you in the first item.

1. For decades the Union Buildings had been the seat of white supremacy, and now…..

2. Only moments before, the higher generals of the South African defense force and police……saluted me and pledged their loyalty….not so many years before they would not have saluted…..

3. Although that day neither group knew the lyrics of the anthem….they would soon……………..

4. My country is rich in the minerals and gems that lie beneath its soil,…………….

5. The Air show was not only a display of pinpoint precision and military force, but…………………..

6. It was this desire for the freedom of my people………that transformed………….into a bold one, that drove………………to become a criminal, that turned……………..into a man without a home.


Answer:

1. It was the site of a rainbow gathering of different colors and nations for the installation of South Africa’s first democratic, non-racial government.


2. Officials; but arrested me.


3. now; know the words by heart.


4. But I have always known that its greatest wealth is its people.


5. A demonstration of the military’s loyalty to democracy.


6. A frightened young man; a law-abiding attorney; a family-loving husband.



Question 3.

Expressing your Opinion

Do you think there is a color prejudice in our own country? Discuss this with your friend and write a paragraph of about 100 to 150 words about this. You have the option of making your paragraph a humorous one.

(Read the short verse given below)

When you were born you were pink

When you grew up you became white

When you are in the sun you are red

When you are sick you are yellow

When you are angry you are purple

When you are shocked you are grey

And you have the cheek to call me ‘coloured’.


Answer:

Color prejudice in India

There is no lawful color prejudice in India. Indian constitution guarantees equal rights to every citizen, irrespective of their color, religion or any other demographic distinction. Having said this, it is essential to note that the society is not free from prejudices. Preference of color and caste is still prevalent in the society. Laws have been made to protect the rights of every individual but the reluctance of the people to follow these laws instead of the pre-conceived societal notions has created an anomaly.

The law of the land doesn’t permit such discriminations and it is the fault of the societal mindset that the regional and color prejudice is still present in India.



A Tiger In The Zoo - Thinking About The Poem
Question 1.

Read the poem again, and work in pairs or groups to do the following tasks.

(i) Find the words that describe the movements and actions of the tiger in the cage and in the wild. Arrange them in two columns.

(ii) Find the words that describes the two places, and arrange them in two columns.

Now try to share ideas about how the poet uses words and images to contrast the two situations.


Answer:

(i)



(ii)




Question 2.

Notice the use of the word repeated in lines such as these:

(i) On pads of velvet quite,

In his quite rage.

(ii) And stares with his brilliant eyes

At the brilliant stars.

What do you think is the effect of this repetition?


Answer:

(i) The word ‘quite’ has been repeated in these lines.


The repetition of the word expresses the intensity of the tiger’s action.


(ii) ‘Brilliant’ word has been repeated in these lines.


It expresses both the anger and brightness in the eyes of the tiger. It creates an effect of intensity of the action.



Question 3.

Read the following two poems – one about a tiger and other about a panther. Then discuss:

Are zoos necessary for the protection or conversation of some species of animals? Are they useful for educating the public? Are there alternatives to zoos?

The Tiger

The Tiger behind the bars of his cage growls,

The Tiger behind the bars of his cage snarls,

The Tiger behind the bars of his cage roars,

Then he thinks.

It would be nice not to behind all the bars all The Time

Because they spoil my view

I wish I were wild, not on show.

But if I were wild, hunters might shoot me,

But if I were wild, food might poison me,

But if I were wild, water might drown me.

Then he stops thinking

And…..

The Tiger behind the bars of his cage growls,

The Tiger behind the bars of his cage snarls,

The Tiger behind the bars of his cage roars,

-Peter Niblett

The Panther

His vision, from the constantly passing bars, has grown so weary that it cannot hold anything else. It seems to him there are a thousand bars; and behind the bars, no world.

As he paces in cramped circles, over and over,

The movement of his powerful soft strides is like a ritual dance around a center in which a mighty will stands paralysed. Only at times, the curtain of the pupils lifts, quietly. An image enters in, rushes down through the tensed, arrested muscles, plunges into the heart and is gone.

-Rainer Maria Rilke


Answer:

Through these two poems, it is clear to all us that freedom is very important for everyone. Not only human beings, but also animals like it deeply. Without freedom, no one can feel happy. Animals in the cage are taken care of. They are given food several times, yet they lead a very pitiable life. They do not like to be caged. They like to move freely, to chase their hunt. They are very powerful, but in the cage, they cannot find proper atmosphere for running and hunting. So, it is very difficult to live in prison.


Although zoos are necessary for the protection or conservation of some species of animals. The dangerous dip in the number of animals in wild has increased the need for the zoos at many places.



Question 4.

Take a point of view for or against zoos, or even consider both points of view and write a couple of paragraphs or speak about the topic for a couple of minutes in a class.


Answer:

Zoos are both necessary and as unnecessary. The reasons in favor are more than its opposite idea. That’s why the number of zoos are increasing throughout the world.


Day-by-day the number of many species is decreasing rapidly. So, zoos are important to protect and conserve them. Many species of wild animals have already become extinct. Animals too are very important for this earth and needed to be taken care of.


There are many reasons to say that there are no apparent alternatives of zoos in the current scenario.


Note: Students may add their own ideas to it.


The Greater Cats


The Greater cats with golden eyes Stare out between the bars.


Deserts are there, and different skies,


And night with different stars


-Victoria Sackville-West


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